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The Concept of a Linguistic Variable and its Application to Approximate Reasoning
 Journal of Information Science
, 1975
"... By a linguistic variable we mean a variable whose values are words or sentences in a natural or artificial language. I:or example, Age is a linguistic variable if its values are linguistic rather than numerical, i.e., young, not young, very young, quite young, old, not very oldand not very young, et ..."
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Cited by 1430 (9 self)
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By a linguistic variable we mean a variable whose values are words or sentences in a natural or artificial language. I:or example, Age is a linguistic variable if its values are linguistic rather than numerical, i.e., young, not young, very young, quite young, old, not very oldand not very young, etc., rather than 20, 21, 22, 23, In more specific terms, a linguistic variable is characterized by a quintuple (&?, T(z), U, G,M) in which &? is the name of the variable; T(s) is the termset of2, that is, the collection of its linguistic values; U is a universe of discourse; G is a syntactic rule which generates the terms in T(z); and M is a semantic rule which associates with each linguistic value X its meaning, M(X), where M(X) denotes a fuzzy subset of U The meaning of a linguistic value X is characterized by a compatibility function, c: l / + [0, I], which associates with each u in U its compatibility with X. Thus, the COItIpdtibiiity of age 27 with young might be 0.7, while that of 35 might be 0.2. The function of the semantic rule is to relate the compdtibihties of the socalled primary terms in a composite linguistic valuee.g.,.young and old in not very young and not very oldto the compatibility of the composite value. To this end, the hedges
ANFIS: AdaptiveNetworkBased Fuzzy Inference System”,
 IEEE Trans. on System, Man and Cybernetics,
, 1993
"... ..."
A ControlTheoretic Approach to Flow Control
, 1991
"... This paper presents a controltheoretic approach to reactive flow control in networks that do not reserve bandwidth. We assume a roundrobinlike queue service discipline in the output queues of the network’s switches, and propose deterministic and stochastic models for a single conversation in a ne ..."
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Cited by 454 (8 self)
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This paper presents a controltheoretic approach to reactive flow control in networks that do not reserve bandwidth. We assume a roundrobinlike queue service discipline in the output queues of the network’s switches, and propose deterministic and stochastic models for a single conversation in a network of such switches. These models motivate the PacketPair rate probing technique, and a provably stable ratebased flow control scheme. A Kalman state estimator is derived from discretetime state space analysis, but there are difficulties in using the estimator in practice. These difficulties are overcome by a novel estimation scheme based on fuzzy logic. We then present a technique to extract and use additional information horn the system to develop a continuoustime system model. This is used to design a wuisnt of the control law that is also provably stable, and, in addition, takes control action as rapidly as possible. Finally, practical issues such as correcting parameter drift and cmmlination with window flow control are described.
A Survey of Shape Analysis Techniques
 Pattern Recognition
, 1998
"... This paper provides a review of shape analysis methods. Shape analysis methods play an important role in systems for object recognition, matching, registration, and analysis. Researchin shape analysis has been motivated, in part, by studies of human visual form perception systems. ..."
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Cited by 267 (2 self)
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This paper provides a review of shape analysis methods. Shape analysis methods play an important role in systems for object recognition, matching, registration, and analysis. Researchin shape analysis has been motivated, in part, by studies of human visual form perception systems.
Neurofuzzy modeling and control
 IEEE PROCEEDINGS
, 1995
"... Fundamental and advanced developments in neurofuzzy synergisms for modeling and control are reviewed. The essential part of neurofuzzy synergisms comes from a common framework called adaptive networks, which uni es both neural networks and fuzzy models. The fuzzy models under the framework of ad ..."
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Cited by 239 (1 self)
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Fundamental and advanced developments in neurofuzzy synergisms for modeling and control are reviewed. The essential part of neurofuzzy synergisms comes from a common framework called adaptive networks, which uni es both neural networks and fuzzy models. The fuzzy models under the framework of adaptive networks is called ANFIS (AdaptiveNetworkbased Fuzzy Inference System), which possess certain advantages over neural networks. We introduce the design methods for ANFIS in both modeling and control applications. Current problems and future directions for neurofuzzy approaches are also addressed.
Functional Equivalence between Radial Basis Function Networks and Fuzzy Inference Systems
, 1993
"... This short article shows that under some minor restrictions, the functional behavior of radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems are actually equivalent. This functional equivalence implies that advances in each literature, such as new learning rules or analysis on representational ..."
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Cited by 169 (4 self)
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This short article shows that under some minor restrictions, the functional behavior of radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems are actually equivalent. This functional equivalence implies that advances in each literature, such as new learning rules or analysis on representational power, etc., can be applied to both models directly. It is of interest to observe that twomodels stemming from different origins turn out to be functional equivalent.
From Computing With Numbers To Computing With Words From Manipulation Of Measurements To Manipulation of Perceptions
 Appl. Math. Comput. Sci
"... Computing, in its usual sense, is centered on manipulation of numbers and symbols. In contrast, computing with words, or CW for short, is a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language, e.g., small, large, far, heavy, not very likely, the p ..."
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Cited by 150 (5 self)
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Computing, in its usual sense, is centered on manipulation of numbers and symbols. In contrast, computing with words, or CW for short, is a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language, e.g., small, large, far, heavy, not very likely, the price of gas is low and declining, Berkeley is near San Francisco, it is very unlikely that there will be a significant increase in the price of oil in the near future, etc. Computing with words is inspired by the remarkable human capability to perform a wide variety of physical and mental tasks without any measurements and any computations. Familiar examples of such tasks are parking a car, driving in heavy traffic, playing golf, riding a bicycle, understanding speech and summarizing a story. Underlying this remarkable capability is the brain’s crucial ability to manipulate perceptions – perceptions of distance, size, weight, color, speed, time, direction, force, number, truth, likelihood and other characteristics of physical and mental objects. Manipulation of perceptions plays a key role in human recognition, decision and execution processes. As a methodology, computing with words provides a foundation for a computational theory of perceptions – a theory which may have an important bearing on how humans make – and machines might make – perceptionbased rational decisions in an environment of imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth. A basic difference between perceptions and measurements is that, in general, measurements are crisp whereas perceptions are fuzzy. One of the fundamental aims of science has been and continues to be that of progressing from perceptions to measurements. Pursuit of this aim has led to brilliant successes. We have sent men to the moon; we can build computers
Control Methodologies in Networked Control Systems
 Control Engineering Practice
, 2003
"... The use of a data network in a control loophas gained increasing attentions in recent years due to its cost effective and flexible applications. One of the major challenges in this socalled networked control system (NCS) is the networkinduced delay effect in the control loop. Network delays degrad ..."
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Cited by 102 (2 self)
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The use of a data network in a control loophas gained increasing attentions in recent years due to its cost effective and flexible applications. One of the major challenges in this socalled networked control system (NCS) is the networkinduced delay effect in the control loop. Network delays degrade the NCS control performance and destabilize the system. A significant emphasis has been on developing control methodologies to handle the network delay effect in NCS. This survey paper presents recent NCS control methodologies. The overview on NCS structures and description of network delays including characteristics and effects are also covered. r 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Toward a generalized theory of uncertainty (GTU)An outline
 Information Sciences
, 2005
"... It is a deepseated tradition in science to view uncertainty as a province of probability theory. The generalized theory of uncertainty (GTU) which is outlined in this paper breaks with this tradition and views uncertainty in a much broader perspective. Uncertainty is an attribute of information. A ..."
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Cited by 97 (2 self)
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It is a deepseated tradition in science to view uncertainty as a province of probability theory. The generalized theory of uncertainty (GTU) which is outlined in this paper breaks with this tradition and views uncertainty in a much broader perspective. Uncertainty is an attribute of information. A fundamental premise of GTU is that information, whatever its form, may be represented as what is called a generalized constraint. The concept of a generalized constraint is the centerpiece of GTU. In GTU, a probabilistic constraint is viewed as a special––albeit important––instance of a generalized constraint. A generalized constraint is a constraint of the form X isr R, where X is the constrained variable, R is a constraining relation, generally nonbivalent, and r is an indexing variable which identifies the modality of the constraint, that is, its semantics. The
The Paradoxical Success of Fuzzy Logic
 IEEE Expert
, 1993
"... Applications of fuzzy logic in heuristic control have been highly successful, but which aspects of fuzzy logic are essential to its practical usefulness? This paper shows that an apparently reasonable version of fuzzy logic collapses mathematically to twovalued logic. Moreover, there are few if any ..."
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Cited by 87 (1 self)
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Applications of fuzzy logic in heuristic control have been highly successful, but which aspects of fuzzy logic are essential to its practical usefulness? This paper shows that an apparently reasonable version of fuzzy logic collapses mathematically to twovalued logic. Moreover, there are few if any published reports of expert systems in realworld use that reason about uncertainty using fuzzy logic. It appears that the limitations of fuzzy logic have not been detrimental in control applications because current fuzzy controllers are far simpler than other knowledgebased systems. In the future, the technical limitations of fuzzy logic can be expected to become important in practice, and work on fuzzy controllers will also encounter several problems of scale already known for other knowledgebased systems. 1