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Compact and Localized Distributed Data Structures
 JOURNAL OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
, 2001
"... This survey concerns the role of data structures for compactly storing and representing various types of information in a localized and distributed fashion. Traditional approaches to data representation are based on global data structures, which require access to the entire structure even if the sou ..."
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Cited by 72 (25 self)
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This survey concerns the role of data structures for compactly storing and representing various types of information in a localized and distributed fashion. Traditional approaches to data representation are based on global data structures, which require access to the entire structure even if the sought information involves only a small and local set of entities. In contrast, localized data representation schemes are based on breaking the information into small local pieces, or labels, selected in a way that allows one to infer information regarding a small set of entities directly from their labels, without using any additional (global) information. The survey focuses on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques, and covers complexity results on various applications, including compact localized schemes for message routing in communication networks, and adjacency and distance labeling schemes.
Routing in Distributed Networks: Overview and Open Problems
 ACM SIGACT News  Distributed Computing Column
, 2001
"... This article focuses on routing messages in distributed networks with efficient data structures. After an overview of the various results of the literature, we point some interestingly open problems. ..."
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Cited by 49 (12 self)
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This article focuses on routing messages in distributed networks with efficient data structures. After an overview of the various results of the literature, we point some interestingly open problems.
Efficient Communication Strategies for AdHoc Wireless Networks
, 2000
"... An adhoc wireless network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. This type of network is of great importance in situations where it is very difficult to provide the necessary infrastructur ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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An adhoc wireless network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. This type of network is of great importance in situations where it is very difficult to provide the necessary infrastructure, but it is a challenging task to enable fast and reliable communication within such a network. In this paper, we model and analyze the performance of socalled powercontrolled adhoc wireless networks: networks where the mobile hosts are able to change their transmission power. We concentrate on finding schemes for routing arbitrary permutations in these networks. In general, it is NPhard even to find a n 1 approximation for any constant to the fastest possible strategy for routing a given permutation problem on n mobile hosts. However, we here demonstrate that if we allow ourselves to consider slightly less general problems, efficient solutions can be found. We first demonstrate that there is a natural class of distributed schemes for handling nodetonode communication on top of which online route selection and scheduling strategies can be constructed such that the performance of this class of schemes can be exploited in a nearly optimal way for routing permutations in any static powercontrolled adhoc network. We then demonstrate
Buses for Anonymous Message Delivery
, 2001
"... This work develops a novel approach to hide the senders and the receivers of messages. The intuition is taken from an everyday activity that hides the "communication pattern"  the public transportation system. To describe our protocols, busses are used as a metaphor: Busses, i.e., messages, are ..."
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Cited by 30 (1 self)
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This work develops a novel approach to hide the senders and the receivers of messages. The intuition is taken from an everyday activity that hides the "communication pattern"  the public transportation system. To describe our protocols, busses are used as a metaphor: Busses, i.e., messages, are traveling on the network, each piece of information is allocated a seat within the bus. Routes are chosen and buses are scheduled to traverse these routes.
Symmetry and Computability in Anonymous Networks: A Brief Survey
 Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Structural Information and Communication Complexity (SIROCCO'96), Carleton
, 1996
"... . Processors in anonymous networks are as identical to each other as possible and possess "little" knowledge about the network. Anonymous networks are very useful in theoretical studies for testing "true distributivity". In this paper we give a brief survey of results illuminating how symmetry influ ..."
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Cited by 18 (4 self)
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. Processors in anonymous networks are as identical to each other as possible and possess "little" knowledge about the network. Anonymous networks are very useful in theoretical studies for testing "true distributivity". In this paper we give a brief survey of results illuminating how symmetry influences computability in anonymous networks. Problems and issues considered include leader election, spanning tree construction, orientations, randomization, processor views, and computability problems on arbitrary as well as symmetric functions. Results mentioned are applicable to several topologies ranging from the rings, tori, hypercubes, and Cayley networks to arbitrary networks. We also propose several related open problems. 1980 Mathematics Subject Classification: 68Q99 CR Categories: C.2.1 Key Words and Phrases: Anonymous network, boolean function, cayley graphs, computability, gap theorem, hypercube, leader election, ring, symmetry. SCS Technical report: TR9618 1 Introduction Id...
Compact routing schemes for dynamic ring networks
 Theory of Computing Systems
"... Abstract. We consider the problem of routing in an asynchronous dynamically changing ring of processors using schemes that minimize the storage space for the routing information. In general, applying static techniques to a dynamic network would require significant recomputation. Moreover, the known ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Abstract. We consider the problem of routing in an asynchronous dynamically changing ring of processors using schemes that minimize the storage space for the routing information. In general, applying static techniques to a dynamic network would require significant recomputation. Moreover, the known dynamic techniques applied to the ring lead to inefficient schemes. In this paper we introduce a new technique, Dynamic Interval Routing, and we show tradeoffs between the stretch factor, the adaptation cost, and the size of the update messages used by routing schemes based upon it. We give three algorithms for rings of maximum size N: the first two are deterministic, one with adaptation cost zero but worst case stretch factor ⌊N/2⌋, the other with worst case adaptation cost O(N) update messages of O(log N) bits and stretch factor 1. The third algorithm is randomized, uses update messages of size O(k log N), has adaptation cost O(k), and expected stretch factor 1 + 1/k, for any integer k ≥ 3. All schemes require O(log N) bits per node for the routing information and all messages headers are of O(log N) bits.
Dynamic Routing Schemes for Graphs with Low Local Density
, 2007
"... This paper studies approximate distributed routing schemes on dynamic communication networks. The paper focuses on dynamic weighted general graphs where the vertices of the graph are fixed but the weights of the edges may change. Our main contribution concerns bounding the cost of adapting to dynam ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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This paper studies approximate distributed routing schemes on dynamic communication networks. The paper focuses on dynamic weighted general graphs where the vertices of the graph are fixed but the weights of the edges may change. Our main contribution concerns bounding the cost of adapting to dynamic changes. The update efficiency of a routing scheme is measured by the time needed in order to update the routing scheme following a weight change. A naive dynamic routing scheme, which updates all vertices following a weight change, requires Ω(Diam) time in order to perform the updates after every weight change, where Diam is the diameter of the underlying graph. In contrast, this paper presents approximate dynamic routing schemes with average time complexity ˜Θ(D), per topological change, where D is the local density parameter of the underlying graph. Following a weight change, our scheme never incurs more than Diam time, thus, our scheme is particularly efficient on graphs which have low local density and large diameter. The paper also establishes upper and lower bounds on the size of the databases required by the scheme at each site.
Independent Spanning Trees with Small Stretch Factors
, 1996
"... A pair of spanning trees rooted at a vertex r are independent if for every vertex v the pair of unique tree paths from v to the root r are disjoint. This paper presents the first analysis of the path lengths involved in independent spanning trees in 2edgeconnected and 2vertexconnected graphs. We ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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A pair of spanning trees rooted at a vertex r are independent if for every vertex v the pair of unique tree paths from v to the root r are disjoint. This paper presents the first analysis of the path lengths involved in independent spanning trees in 2edgeconnected and 2vertexconnected graphs. We present upper and lower bounds on the stretch factors of pairs of independent spanning trees, where the stretch factor of a spanning tree is defined to be the maximum ratio between the length of paths in the tree to the root to the length of the shortest path in the graph to the root. We prove that if G is a 2edgeconnected graph with the property that every edge lies on a cycle of size at most h than we can construct in linear time a pair of edgeindependent spanning trees whose stretch factors are bounded by O(h). In fact, we prove a more general result, namely that the stretch factor of both independent trees can be bounded by a minimax length of ears with respect to a certain class of ...
High Performance Interconnection Networks
, 2002
"... The thesis is concerned with the design of high performance interconnection networks for use predominantly in parallel computing systems and wide area networks. The most important indicating a combined measure of hardware complexity and worstcast message routing complexity. Furthermore, a high perf ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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The thesis is concerned with the design of high performance interconnection networks for use predominantly in parallel computing systems and wide area networks. The most important indicating a combined measure of hardware complexity and worstcast message routing complexity. Furthermore, a high performance network should also have the properties of regular and planar topology, high bisection width and routing simplicity. Specifically, the following problems are studied: (i) constructing the largest possible networks that simultaneously exhibit a number of other properties including a small number of edges, high bisection width and planarity; and (ii) implementing high performance communication networks on a scale comparable to that of the Internet. With respect to specific technology, the thesis addresses the following two questions: (i) exactly how can optical internetworking be achieved on a world wide scale so as to maximize performance and (ii) just how big can an optical internetwork be, given the present/future technological limits and performance constraints.
Augmented Graph Models for SmallWorld Analysis with Geographical Factors
"... Smallworld properties, such as smalldiameter and clustering, and the powerlaw property are widely recognized as common features of largescale realworld networks. Recent studies also notice two important geographical factors which play a significant role, particularly in Internet related setting ..."
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Smallworld properties, such as smalldiameter and clustering, and the powerlaw property are widely recognized as common features of largescale realworld networks. Recent studies also notice two important geographical factors which play a significant role, particularly in Internet related setting. These two are the distancebias tendency (links tend to connect to closer nodes) and the property of bounded growth in localities. However, existing formal models for realworld complex networks usually don’t fully consider these geographical factors. We describe a flexible approach using a standard augmented graph model (e.g. Watt and Strogatz’s [33], and Kleinberg’s [20] models) and present important initial results on a refined model where we focus on the smalldiameter characteristic and the above two geographical factors. We start with a general model where an arbitrary initial nodeweighted graph H is augmented with additional random links specified by a generic ‘distribution rule ’ τ and the weights of nodes in H. We consider a refined setting where the initial graph H is associated with a growthbounded metric, and τ has a distancebias characteristic, specified by parameters as follows. The base graph H has neighborhood growth bounded from both below and above, specified by parameters β1, β2> 0. (These parameters can be thought of as the dimension of the graph, e.g. β1 = 2 and β2 = 3 for a graph modeling a setting with nodes in both 2D and 3D settings.) That is 2β1 Nu(2r) ≤ Nu(r) ≤ 2β2 where Nu(r) is the number of nodes v within metric distance r from u: d(u, v) ≤ r. When we add random links using distribution τ, this distribution is specified by parameter α> 0 such that the probability that 1 a link from u goes to v � = u is ∝ dα (u,v). We show which parameters produce a smalldiameter graph and how the diameter changes depending on the relationship between the distancebias parameter α and the two bounded growth parameters β1, β2> 0. In particular, for most connected base graphs, the diameter of our aug