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258
Behavior recognition via sparse spatiotemporal features
 In VSPETS
, 2005
"... A common trend in object recognition is to detect and leverage the use of sparse, informative feature points. The use of such features makes the problem more manageable while providing increased robustness to noise and pose variation. In this work we develop an extension of these ideas to the spatio ..."
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Cited by 378 (4 self)
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A common trend in object recognition is to detect and leverage the use of sparse, informative feature points. The use of such features makes the problem more manageable while providing increased robustness to noise and pose variation. In this work we develop an extension of these ideas to the spatiotemporal case. For this purpose, we show that the direct 3D counterparts to commonly used 2D interest point detectors are inadequate, and we propose an alternative. Anchoring off of these interest points, we devise a recognition algorithm based on spatiotemporally windowed data. We present recognition results on a variety of datasets including both human and rodent behavior. 1.
Blobworld: Image segmentation using ExpectationMaximization and its application to image querying
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1999
"... Retrieving images from large and varied collections using image content as a key is a challenging and important problem. We present a new image representation which provides a transformation from the raw pixel data to a small set of image regions which are coherent in color and texture. This "Blobwo ..."
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Cited by 337 (9 self)
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Retrieving images from large and varied collections using image content as a key is a challenging and important problem. We present a new image representation which provides a transformation from the raw pixel data to a small set of image regions which are coherent in color and texture. This "Blobworld" representation is created by clustering pixels in a joint colortextureposition feature space. The segmentation algorithm is fully automatic and has been run on a collection of 10,000 natural images. We describe a system that uses the Blobworld representation to retrieve images from this collection. An important aspect of the system is that the user is allowed to view the internal representation of the submitted image and the query results. Similar systems do not offer the user this view into the workings of the system; consequently, query results from these systems can be inexplicable, despite the availability of knobs for adjusting the similarity metrics. By finding image regions whi...
Orientation Diffusions
 IEEE Trans. Image Processing
, 1998
"... Abstract—Diffusions are useful for image processing and computer vision because they provide a convenient way of smoothing noisy data, analyzing images at multiple scales, and enhancing discontinuities. A number of diffusions of image brightness have been defined and studied so far; they may be appl ..."
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Cited by 132 (0 self)
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Abstract—Diffusions are useful for image processing and computer vision because they provide a convenient way of smoothing noisy data, analyzing images at multiple scales, and enhancing discontinuities. A number of diffusions of image brightness have been defined and studied so far; they may be applied to scalar and vectorvalued quantities that are naturally associated with intervals of either the real line, or other flat manifolds. Some quantities of interest in computer vision, and other areas of engineering that deal with images, are defined on curved manifolds; typical examples are orientation and hue that are defined on the circle. Generalizing brightness diffusions to orientation is not straightforward, especially in the case where a discrete implementation is sought. An example of what may go wrong is presented. A method is proposed to define diffusions of orientationlike quantities. First a definition in the continuum is discussed, then a discrete orientation diffusion is proposed. The behavior of such diffusions is explored both analytically and experimentally. It is shown how such orientation diffusions contain a nonlinearity that is reminiscent of edgeprocess and anisotropic diffusion. A number of open questions are proposed at the end. Index Terms—Orientation analysis, texture analysis, diffusions, scalespace.
CoherenceEnhancing Diffusion Filtering
, 1999
"... The completion of interrupted lines or the enhancement of flowlike structures is a challenging task in computer vision, human vision, and image processing. We address this problem by presenting a multiscale method in which a nonlinear diffusion filter is steered by the socalled interest operato ..."
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Cited by 87 (2 self)
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The completion of interrupted lines or the enhancement of flowlike structures is a challenging task in computer vision, human vision, and image processing. We address this problem by presenting a multiscale method in which a nonlinear diffusion filter is steered by the socalled interest operator (secondmoment matrix, structure tensor). An mdimensional formulation of this method is analysed with respect to its wellposedness and scalespace properties. An efficient scheme is presented which uses a stabilization by a semiimplicit additive operator splitting (AOS), and the scalespace behaviour of this method is illustrated by applying it to both 2D and 3D images.
A review of statistical approaches to level set segmentation: Integrating color, texture, motion and shape
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2007
"... Abstract. Since their introduction as a means of front propagation and their first application to edgebased segmentation in the early 90’s, level set methods have become increasingly popular as a general framework for image segmentation. In this paper, we present a survey of a specific class of reg ..."
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Cited by 86 (4 self)
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Abstract. Since their introduction as a means of front propagation and their first application to edgebased segmentation in the early 90’s, level set methods have become increasingly popular as a general framework for image segmentation. In this paper, we present a survey of a specific class of regionbased level set segmentation methods and clarify how they can all be derived from a common statistical framework. Regionbased segmentation schemes aim at partitioning the image domain by progressively fitting statistical models to the intensity, color, texture or motion in each of a set of regions. In contrast to edgebased schemes such as the classical Snakes, regionbased methods tend to be less sensitive to noise. For typical images, the respective cost functionals tend to have less local minima which makes them particularly wellsuited for local optimization methods such as the level set method. We detail a general statistical formulation for level set segmentation. Subsequently, we clarify how the integration of various low level criteria leads to a set of cost functionals and point out relations between the different segmentation schemes. In experimental results, we demonstrate how the level set function is driven to partition the image plane into domains of coherent color, texture, dynamic texture or motion. Moreover, the Bayesian formulation allows to introduce prior shape knowledge into the level set method. We briefly review a number of advances in this domain.
Variational Restoration Of Nonflat Image Features: Models And Algorithms
, 2000
"... We develop both mathematical models and computational algorithms for variational denoising and restoration of nonflat image features. Nonflat image features are those that live on Riemannian manifolds, instead of on the Euclidean spaces. Familiar examples include the orientation feature (from optica ..."
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Cited by 79 (14 self)
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We develop both mathematical models and computational algorithms for variational denoising and restoration of nonflat image features. Nonflat image features are those that live on Riemannian manifolds, instead of on the Euclidean spaces. Familiar examples include the orientation feature (from optical flows or gradient flows) that lives on the unit circle S¹, the alignment feature (from fingerprint waves or certain texture images) that lives on the real projective line RP¹ and the chromaticity feature (from color images) that lives on the unit sphere S². In this paper, we apply the variational method to denoise and restore general nonflat image features. Mathematical models for both continuous image domains and discrete domains (or graphs) are constructed. Riemannian objects such as metric, distance and LeviCivita connection play important roles in the models. Computational algorithms are also developed for the resulting nonlinear equations. The mathematical framework can be applied to restoring general nonflat data outside the scope of image processing and computer vision.
A Tensor Framework for Multidimensional Signal Processing
 Linkoping University, Sweden
, 1994
"... ii About the cover The figure on the cover shows a visualization of a symmetric tensor in three dimensions, G = λ1ê1ê T 1 + λ2ê2ê T 2 + λ3ê3ê T 3 The object in the figure is the sum of a spear, a plate and a sphere. The spear describes the principal direction of the tensor λ1ê1ê T 1, where the lengt ..."
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Cited by 56 (8 self)
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ii About the cover The figure on the cover shows a visualization of a symmetric tensor in three dimensions, G = λ1ê1ê T 1 + λ2ê2ê T 2 + λ3ê3ê T 3 The object in the figure is the sum of a spear, a plate and a sphere. The spear describes the principal direction of the tensor λ1ê1ê T 1, where the length is proportional to the largest eigenvalue, λ1. The plate describes the plane spanned by the eigenvectors corresponding to the two largest eigenvalues, λ2(ê1ê T 1 + ê2ê T 2). The sphere, with a radius proportional to the smallest eigenvalue, shows how isotropic the tensor is, λ3(ê1ê T 1 + ê2ê T 2 + ê3ê T 3). The visualization is done using AVS [WWW94]. I am very grateful to Johan Wiklund for implementing the tensor viewer module used. This thesis deals with filtering of multidimensional signals. A large part of the thesis is devoted to a novel filtering method termed “Normalized convolution”. The method performs local expansion of a signal in a chosen filter basis which
Diffusion of General Data on NonFlat Manifolds via Harmonic Maps Theory: The Direction Diffusion Case
 Journal Computer Vision
, 2000
"... Abstract. In a number of disciplines, directional data provides a fundamental source of information. A novel framework for isotropic and anisotropic diffusion of directions is presented in this paper. The framework can be applied both to denoise directional data and to obtain multiscale representati ..."
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Cited by 52 (6 self)
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Abstract. In a number of disciplines, directional data provides a fundamental source of information. A novel framework for isotropic and anisotropic diffusion of directions is presented in this paper. The framework can be applied both to denoise directional data and to obtain multiscale representations of it. The basic idea is to apply and extend results from the theory of harmonic maps, and in particular, harmonic maps in liquid crystals. This theory deals with the regularization of vectorial data, while satisfying the intrinsic unit norm constraint of directional data. We show the corresponding variational and partial differential equations formulations for isotropic diffusion, obtained from an L2 norm, and edge preserving diffusion, obtained from an L p norm in general and an L1 norm in particular. In contrast with previous approaches, the framework is valid for directions in any dimensions, supports nonsmooth data, and gives both isotropic and anisotropic formulations. In addition, the framework of harmonic maps here described can be used to diffuse and analyze general image data defined on general nonflat manifolds, that is, functions between two general manifolds. We present a number of theoretical results, open questions, and examples for gradient vectors, optical flow, and color images.
Capture of Hair Geometry from Multiple Images
, 2004
"... Hair is a major feature of digital characters. Unfortunately, it has a complex geometry which challenges standard modeling tools. Some dedicated techniques exist, but creating a realistic hairstyle still takes hours. Complementary to userdriven methods, we here propose an imagebased approach to ca ..."
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Cited by 44 (4 self)
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Hair is a major feature of digital characters. Unfortunately, it has a complex geometry which challenges standard modeling tools. Some dedicated techniques exist, but creating a realistic hairstyle still takes hours. Complementary to userdriven methods, we here propose an imagebased approach to capture the geometry of hair. The novelty of this work is that we draw information from the scattering properties of the hair that are normally considered a hindrance. To do so, we analyze image sequences from a fixed camera with a moving light source. We first introduce a novel method to compute the image orientation of the hairs from their anisotropic behavior. This method is proven to subsume and extend existing work while improving accuracy. This image orientation is then raised into a 3D orientation by analyzing the light reflected by the hair fibers. This part relies on minimal assumptions that have been proven correct in previous work. Finally, we show how to use several such image sequences to reconstruct the complete hair geometry of a real person. Results are shown to illustrate the fidelity of the captured geometry to the original hair. This technique paves the way for a new approach to digital hair generation.
Image Processing for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging
 In Proceedings of ISMRM’97
, 1999
"... This paper describes image processing techniques for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance. In Diffusion Tensor MRI, a tensor describing local water diffusion is acquired for each voxel. The geometric nature of the diffusion tensors can quantitatively characterize the local structure in tissues such a ..."
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Cited by 43 (8 self)
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This paper describes image processing techniques for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance. In Diffusion Tensor MRI, a tensor describing local water diffusion is acquired for each voxel. The geometric nature of the diffusion tensors can quantitatively characterize the local structure in tissues such as bone, muscles, and white matter of the brain. The close relationship between local image structure and apparent diffusion makes this image modality very interesting for medical image analysis. We present a decomposition of the diffusion tensor based on its symmetry properties resulting in useful measures describing the geometry of the diffusion ellipsoid. A simple anisotropy measure follows naturally from this analysis. We describe how the geometry, or shape, of the tensor can be visualized using a coloring scheme based on the derived shape measures. We show how filtering of the tensor data of a human brain can provide a description of macrostructural diffusion which can...