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224
Authentication Metric Analysis and Design
 ACM Transactions on Information and System Security
, 1999
"... Authentication using a path of trusted intermediaries, each able to authenticate the next in the path, is a wellknown technique for authenticating entities in a largescale system. Recent work has extended this technique to include multiple paths in an effort to bolster authentication, but the succ ..."
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Cited by 76 (1 self)
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Authentication using a path of trusted intermediaries, each able to authenticate the next in the path, is a wellknown technique for authenticating entities in a largescale system. Recent work has extended this technique to include multiple paths in an effort to bolster authentication, but the success of this approach may be unclear in the face of intersecting paths, ambiguities in the meaning of certificates, and interdependencies in the use of different keys. Thus, several authors have proposed metrics to evaluate the confidence afforded by a set of paths. In this paper we develop a set of guiding principles for the design of such metrics. We motivate our principles by showing how previous approaches failed with respect to these priniciples and what the consequences to authentication might be. We then propose a new metric that appears to meet our principles, and so to be a satisfactory metric of authentication.
SEMIRING FRAMEWORKS AND ALGORITHMS FOR SHORTESTDISTANCE PROBLEMS
, 2002
"... We define general algebraic frameworks for shortestdistance problems based on the structure of semirings. We give a generic algorithm for finding singlesource shortest distances in a weighted directed graph when the weights satisfy the conditions of our general semiring framework. The same algorit ..."
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Cited by 73 (20 self)
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We define general algebraic frameworks for shortestdistance problems based on the structure of semirings. We give a generic algorithm for finding singlesource shortest distances in a weighted directed graph when the weights satisfy the conditions of our general semiring framework. The same algorithm can be used to solve efficiently classical shortest paths problems or to find the kshortest distances in a directed graph. It can be used to solve singlesource shortestdistance problems in weighted directed acyclic graphs over any semiring. We examine several semirings and describe some specific instances of our generic algorithms to illustrate their use and compare them with existing methods and algorithms. The proof of the soundness of all algorithms is given in detail, including their pseudocode and a full analysis of their running time complexity.
Network Planning in Wireless Ad hoc Networks: A CrossLayer Approach
, 2005
"... allocating information carrier supplies such that certain endtoend communication demands, as a collection of multicast sessions, are fulfilled. This formulation necessitates a crosslayer coupling. We aim at a computational characterization of the performance theoretically achievable with joint ..."
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Cited by 68 (6 self)
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allocating information carrier supplies such that certain endtoend communication demands, as a collection of multicast sessions, are fulfilled. This formulation necessitates a crosslayer coupling. We aim at a computational characterization of the performance theoretically achievable with joint optimizations spanning the network stack.
Centrality and Network Flow
"... Centrality measures, or at least our interpretations of these measures, make implicit assumptions about the manner in which things flow through a network. For example, some measures count only geodesic paths, apparently assuming that whatever flows through the network only moves along the shortest p ..."
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Cited by 58 (1 self)
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Centrality measures, or at least our interpretations of these measures, make implicit assumptions about the manner in which things flow through a network. For example, some measures count only geodesic paths, apparently assuming that whatever flows through the network only moves along the shortest possible paths. This paper lays out a typology of network flows based on two dimensions of variation, namely, the kinds of trajectories that traffic may follow (geodesics, paths, trails or walks), and the method of spread (broadcast, serial replication, or transfer). Measures of centrality are then matched to the kinds of flows they are appropriate for. Simulations are used to examine the relationship between type of flow and the differential importance of nodes with respect to key measurements such as speed of reception of traffic and frequency of receiving traffic. It is shown that the offtheshelf formulas for centrality measures are fully applicable only for the specific flow processes they are designed for, and that when they are applied to other flow processes they get the “wrong” answer. It is noted that the most commonly used centrality measures are not appropriate for most of the flows we are routinely interested in. A key claim made in this paper is that centrality measures can be regarded as generating expected values for certain kinds of node outcomes (such as speed and frequency of reception) given implicit models of how things flow.
Centrality in valued graphs: A measure of betweenness based on network flow
, 1991
"... A new measure of centrality, C,, is introduced. It is based on the concept of network flows. While conceptually similar to Freeman’s original measure, Ca, the new measure differs from the original in two important ways. First, C, is defined for both valued and nonvalued graphs. This makes C, applic ..."
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Cited by 56 (6 self)
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A new measure of centrality, C,, is introduced. It is based on the concept of network flows. While conceptually similar to Freeman’s original measure, Ca, the new measure differs from the original in two important ways. First, C, is defined for both valued and nonvalued graphs. This makes C, applicable to a wider variety of network datasets. Second, the computation of C, is not based on geodesic paths as is C, but on all the independent paths between all pairs of points in the network.
SingleSource Unsplittable Flow
 In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1996
"... The maxflow mincut theorem of Ford and Fulkerson is based on an even more foundational result, namely Menger's theorem on graph connectivity. Menger's theorem provides a good characterization for the following singlesource disjoint paths problem: given a graph G, with a source vertex s and termin ..."
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Cited by 55 (2 self)
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The maxflow mincut theorem of Ford and Fulkerson is based on an even more foundational result, namely Menger's theorem on graph connectivity. Menger's theorem provides a good characterization for the following singlesource disjoint paths problem: given a graph G, with a source vertex s and terminals t 1 , ..., t k , decide whether there exist edgedisjoint st i paths, for i = 1, ..., k. We consider a natural, NPhard generalization of this problem, which we call the singlesource unsplittable flow problem. We are given a source and terminals as before; but now each terminal t i has a demand ae i 1, and each edge e of G has a capacity c e 1. The problem is to decide whether one can choose a single st i path, for each i, so that the resulting set of paths respects the capacity constraints  the total amount of demand routed across any edge e must be bounded by the capacity c e . The main results of this paper are constantfactor approximation algorithms for three n...
Combinatorial preconditioners for sparse, symmetric, diagonally dominant linear systems
, 1996
"... ..."
Global Mincuts in RNC, and Other Ramifications of a Simple MinCut Algorithm
, 1992
"... This paper presents a new algorithm for nding global mincuts in weighted, undirected graphs. One of the strengths of the algorithm is its extreme simplicity. This randomized algorithm can be implemented as a strongly polynomial sequential algorithm with running time ~ O(mn 2), even if space is res ..."
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Cited by 50 (5 self)
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This paper presents a new algorithm for nding global mincuts in weighted, undirected graphs. One of the strengths of the algorithm is its extreme simplicity. This randomized algorithm can be implemented as a strongly polynomial sequential algorithm with running time ~ O(mn 2), even if space is restricted to O(n), or can be parallelized as an RN C algorithm which runs in time O(log 2 n) on a CRCW PRAM with mn 2 log n processors. In addition to yielding the best known processor bounds on unweighted graphs, this algorithm provides the first proof that the mincut problem for weighted undirected graphs is in RN C. The algorithm does more than find a single mincut; it nds all of them. The algorithm also yields numerous results on network reliability, enumeration of cuts, multiway cuts, and approximate mincuts.
An NC Algorithm for Minimum Cuts
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 25TH ANNUAL ACM SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING
"... We show that the minimum cut problem for weighted undirected graphs can be solved in NC using three separate and independently interesting results. The first is an (m 2 =n)processor NC algorithm for finding a (2 + ffl)approximation to the minimum cut. The second is a randomized reduction from ..."
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Cited by 46 (3 self)
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We show that the minimum cut problem for weighted undirected graphs can be solved in NC using three separate and independently interesting results. The first is an (m 2 =n)processor NC algorithm for finding a (2 + ffl)approximation to the minimum cut. The second is a randomized reduction from the minimum cut problem to the problem of obtaining a (2 + ffl)approximation to the minimum cut. This reduction involves a natural combinatorial SetIsolation Problem that can be solved easily in RNC. The third result is a derandomization of this RNC solution that requires a combination of two widely used tools: pairwise independence and random walks on expanders. We believe that the setisolation approach will prove useful in other derandomization problems. The techniques extend to two related problems: we describe NC algorithms finding minimum kway cuts for any constant k and finding all cuts of value within any constant factor of the minimum. Another application of these techni...
Toward Acceptable Metrics of Authentication
 In Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy
, 1997
"... Authentication using a path of trusted intermediaries, each able to authenticate the next in the path, is a wellknown technique for authenticating entities in a largescale system. Recent work has extended this technique to include multiple paths in an effort to bolster authentication, but the succ ..."
Abstract

Cited by 43 (2 self)
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Authentication using a path of trusted intermediaries, each able to authenticate the next in the path, is a wellknown technique for authenticating entities in a largescale system. Recent work has extended this technique to include multiple paths in an effort to bolster authentication, but the success of this approach may be unclear in the face of intersecting paths, ambiguities in the meaning of certificates, and interdependencies in the use of different keys. Several authors have thus proposed metrics to evaluate the confidence afforded by a set of paths. In this paper we develop a set of guiding principles for the design of such metrics. We motivate our principles by showing how previous approaches fail with respect to them and what the consequences to authentication might be. We then propose a direction for constructing metrics that come closer to meeting our principles and thus, we believe, to being satisfactory metrics for authentication. 1 Introduction Determining the owner of...