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An InformationTheoretic Model for Steganography
, 1998
"... An informationtheoretic model for steganography with passive adversaries is proposed. The adversary's task of distinguishing between an innocentcover message C and a modified message S containing a secret part is interpreted as a hypothesis testing problem. The security of a steganographic sys ..."
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Cited by 209 (3 self)
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An informationtheoretic model for steganography with passive adversaries is proposed. The adversary's task of distinguishing between an innocentcover message C and a modified message S containing a secret part is interpreted as a hypothesis testing problem. The security of a steganographic system is quantified in terms of the relative entropy (or discrimination) between PC and PS . Several secure steganographic schemes are presented in this model; one of them is a universal information hiding scheme based on universal data compression techniques that requires no knowledge of the covertext statistics.
Spread Spectrum Image Steganography
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 1999
"... In this paper we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled Spread Spectrum Image Steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory an ..."
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Cited by 78 (5 self)
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In this paper we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled Spread Spectrum Image Steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, errorcontrol coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a datahiding scheme include inband captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embe...
The Art of Signaling: Fifty Years of Coding Theory
, 1998
"... In 1948 Shannon developed fundamental limits on the efficiency of communication over noisy channels. The coding theorem asserts that there are block codes with code rates arbitrarily close to channel capacity and probabilities of error arbitrarily close to zero. Fifty years later, codes for the Gaus ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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In 1948 Shannon developed fundamental limits on the efficiency of communication over noisy channels. The coding theorem asserts that there are block codes with code rates arbitrarily close to channel capacity and probabilities of error arbitrarily close to zero. Fifty years later, codes for the Gaussian channel have been discovered that come close to these fundamental limits. There is now a substantial algebraic theory of errorcorrecting codes with as many connections to mathematics as to engineering practice, and the last 20 years have seen the construction of algebraicgeometry codes that can be encoded and decoded in polynomial time, and that beat the Gilbert–Varshamov bound. Given the size of coding theory as a subject, this review is of necessity a personal perspective, and the focus is reliable communication, and not source coding or cryptography. The emphasis is on connecting coding theories for Hamming and Euclidean space and on future challenges, specifically in data networking, wireless communication, and quantum information theory.
Steganography  The Art of Hiding Data
, 2004
"... Given the shear volume of data stored and transmitted electronically in the world today, it is no surprise that countless methods of protecting such data have evolved. One lesserknown but rapidly growing method is steganography, the art and science of hiding information so that it does not even app ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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Given the shear volume of data stored and transmitted electronically in the world today, it is no surprise that countless methods of protecting such data have evolved. One lesserknown but rapidly growing method is steganography, the art and science of hiding information so that it does not even appear to exist. Moreover, in an ideal world we would all be able to openly send encrypted email or files to each other with no fear of reprisals. However, there are often cases when this is not possible, either because you are working for a company that does not allow encrypted emails or perhaps the local government does not approve of encrypted communication. This is one of the cases where Steganography can help hide the encrypted messages, images, keys, secret data, etc. This paper discusses the purpose of steganography. Explains how steganography is related to cryptography as well as what it can and cannot be used for. It also discusses a brief history of steganography. In addition, some of the tools and software used in steganography are demonstrated and including some discussion of the most popular algorithms involved in these tools. This paper further explains the advantages and disadvantages, as well as, strengths and weaknesses in the use of steganography.
Statistical Techniques for Language Recognition: An Introduction and Guide for Cryptanalysts
 Cryptologia
, 1993
"... We explain how to apply statistical techniques to solve several languagerecognition problems that arise in cryptanalysis and other domains. Language recognition is important in cryptanalysis because, among other applications, an exhaustive key search of any cryptosystem from ciphertext alone requir ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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We explain how to apply statistical techniques to solve several languagerecognition problems that arise in cryptanalysis and other domains. Language recognition is important in cryptanalysis because, among other applications, an exhaustive key search of any cryptosystem from ciphertext alone requires a test that recognizes valid plaintext. Written for cryptanalysts, this guide should also be helpful to others as an introduction to statistical inference on Markov chains. Modeling language as a finite stationary Markov process, we adapt a statistical model of pattern recognition to language recognition. Within this framework we consider four welldefined languagerecognition problems: 1) recognizing a known language, 2) distinguishing a known language from uniform noise, 3) distinguishing unknown 0thorder noise from unknown 1storder language, and 4) detecting nonuniform unknown language. For the second problem we give a most powerful test based on the NeymanPearson Lemma. For the oth...
Elliptic curve cryptography: The serpentine course of a paradigm shift
 J. NUMBER THEORY
, 2008
"... Over a period of sixteen years elliptic curve cryptography went from being an approach that many people mistrusted or misunderstood to being a public key technology that enjoys almost unquestioned acceptance. We describe the sometimes surprising twists and turns in this paradigm shift, and compare ..."
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Over a period of sixteen years elliptic curve cryptography went from being an approach that many people mistrusted or misunderstood to being a public key technology that enjoys almost unquestioned acceptance. We describe the sometimes surprising twists and turns in this paradigm shift, and compare this story with the commonly accepted Ideal Model of how research and development function in cryptography. We also discuss to what extent the ideas in the literature on “social construction of technology” can contribute to a better understanding of this history.
Providing authentication to messages signed with a smart card in hostile environments
 Usenix Workshop on Smart Card Technology
, 1999
"... Rights to individual papers remain with the author or the author's employer. Permission is granted for noncommercial reproduction of the work for educational or research purposes. This copyright notice must be included in the reproduced paper. USENIX acknowledges all trademarks herein. For more ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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Rights to individual papers remain with the author or the author's employer. Permission is granted for noncommercial reproduction of the work for educational or research purposes. This copyright notice must be included in the reproduced paper. USENIX acknowledges all trademarks herein. For more information about the USENIX Association:
Bit Permutation Instructions: Architecture, Implementation and Cryptographic Properties
, 2004
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Basic concepts in quantum computation
, 2000
"... 1 Qubits, gates and networks Consider the two binary strings, 011, (1) 111. (2) The first one can represent, for example, the number 3 (in binary) and the second one the number 7. In general three physical bits can be prepared in 2 3 = 8 different configurations that can represent, for example, the ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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1 Qubits, gates and networks Consider the two binary strings, 011, (1) 111. (2) The first one can represent, for example, the number 3 (in binary) and the second one the number 7. In general three physical bits can be prepared in 2 3 = 8 different configurations that can represent, for example, the integers from 0 to 7. However, a register composed of three classical bits can store only one number at a given moment of time. Enter qubits and quantum registers: A qubit is a quantum system in which the Boolean states 0 and 1 are represented by a prescribed pair of normalised and mutually orthogonal quantum states labeled as {0〉, 1〉} [1]. The two states form a ‘computational basis ’ and any other (pure) state of the qubit can be written as a superposition α0〉+β1〉 for some α and β such that α  2 + β  2 = 1. A qubit is typically a microscopic system, such as an atom, a nuclear spin, or a polarised photon. A collection of n qubits is called a quantum register of size n. We shall assume that information is stored in the registers in binary form. For example, the number 6 is represented by a register in state 1 〉 ⊗ 1 〉 ⊗ 0〉. In more compact notation: a 〉 stands for the tensor product an−1 〉 ⊗ an−2〉...a1 〉 ⊗ a0〉, where ai ∈ {0, 1}, and it represents a quantum register prepared with the value a = 2 0 a0 + 2 1 a1 +... 2 n−1 an−1. There are 2 n states of this kind, representing all binary strings of length n or numbers from 0 to 2 n −1, and they form a convenient computational basis. In the following a ∈ {0, 1} n (a is a binary string of length n) implies that  a 〉 belongs to the computational basis. Thus a quantum register of size three can store individual numbers such as