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Congestion Modelling
, 1999
"... Transportation researchers have long struggled to find satisfactory ways of describing and analysing traffic congestion, as evident from the large number of often competing approaches and models that have been developed. This paper aims to provide a review of the literature on this topic. The pap ..."
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Transportation researchers have long struggled to find satisfactory ways of describing and analysing traffic congestion, as evident from the large number of often competing approaches and models that have been developed. This paper aims to provide a review of the literature on this topic. The paper starts with the modelling of homogeneous traffic flow and congestion on an isolated road under stationary conditions. We set up the supplydemand framework used to characterize equilibrium and optimal travel volumes. Next, an overview of macroscopic and microscopic models of nonstationary traffic flow is given. We then describe how trip timing can be modelled, and discuss the essence of dynamic equilibrium. The paper next reviews the principles of static and dynamic equilibrium on a road network in a deterministic environment, and then identifies equilibrium concepts that account for stochasticity in demand and capacity. Finally, conceptual and practical issues regarding congestion pricing and investment on a network will be addressed.
Dynamic Decision and Adjustment Processes In Commuter Behavior Under RealTime Information
, 2002
"... ..."
PARETO IMPROVEMENTS FROM LEXUS LANES
"... Abstract. This paper shows that a judiciously designed toll applied to a portion of the lanes of a highway can be a Pareto improvement even before the revenue is spent. I achieve this new result by extending a standard dynamic congestion model to reflect an important additional traffic externality w ..."
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Abstract. This paper shows that a judiciously designed toll applied to a portion of the lanes of a highway can be a Pareto improvement even before the revenue is spent. I achieve this new result by extending a standard dynamic congestion model to reflect an important additional traffic externality which transportation engineers have recently identified: additional traffic does not simply increase travel times, but can also introduce additional frictions that reduce throughput. By using a time varying toll to smooth the rate that people depart for work it is possible to avoid these frictions, increasing speed and throughput. Because adding a toll increases throughput, if road users are homogeneous then adding tolls to all of the lanes is a Pareto improvement. However, adding tolls changes the currency used to pay for use of the highway during rush hour from time to money. This change hurts the inflexible poor. We can avoid hurting the inflexible poor by only adding tolls to a portion of the lanes. Doing so preserves their ability to pay with time instead of money. I show that as long as there are some rich drivers using the highway at the peak of rush hour then adding tolls to a portion of the lanes is a Pareto improvement. To confirm the real world relevance of this theoretical possibility I use survey and travel time data from California State Route 91 to estimate the effects of adding optimal time varying tolls. I find that adding tolls to a four of the lanes is a Pareto improvement, and that social welfare gains of doing so are over a thousand dollars per road user per year. 1.
PARETO IMPROVEMENTS FROM LEXUS LANES: THE EFFECTS OF PRICING A PORTION OF THE LANES ON CONGESTED HIGHWAYS
"... Abstract. This paper shows that a judiciously designed toll applied to a portion of the lanes of a highway can be a Pareto improvement even before the revenue is spent. I achieve this new result by extending a standard dynamic congestion model to reflect an important additional traffic externality w ..."
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Abstract. This paper shows that a judiciously designed toll applied to a portion of the lanes of a highway can be a Pareto improvement even before the revenue is spent. I achieve this new result by extending a standard dynamic congestion model to reflect an important additional traffic externality which transportation engineers have recently identified: additional traffic does not simply increase travel times, but can also introduce additional frictions that reduce throughput. By using a time varying toll to smooth the rate that people depart for work it is possible to avoid these frictions, increasing speed and throughput. Increasing throughput shortens rush hour, which directly helps all road users. However, adding tolls changes the currency used to pay for use of the highway during rush hour from time to money. This change hurts the inflexible poor and most of the time will outweigh the benefit they reap from having a shorter rush hour. We can avoid hurting the inflexible poor by only adding tolls to a portion of the lanes. Doing so preserves their ability to pay with time instead of money. When there are two families of agents, one rich and the other poor, then as long as some rich drivers use the highway at the peak of rush hour then adding tolls to a portion of the lanes is a Pareto improvement. To confirm the real world relevance of this theoretical possibility I use survey and travel time data to estimate the effects of adding optimal time varying tolls. I find that adding tolls to a fourth of the lanes is a Pareto improvement, and that social welfare gains of doing so are over a thousand dollars per road user per year. 1.
ATIS at Rush Hour: Adaptation and Departure Time Coordination in Iterated Commuting
, 1997
"... Morning commuters adjust their departure times in response to daytoday changes in congestion. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) may enable motorists to employ fundamentally new strategies when adapting their departure times to fluctuations in congestion. At the same time, new driver ..."
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Morning commuters adjust their departure times in response to daytoday changes in congestion. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) may enable motorists to employ fundamentally new strategies when adapting their departure times to fluctuations in congestion. At the same time, new driver strategies will likely give rise to different road network behaviors. This paper explores the mutual feedback between driver strategy and traffic system performance through a simulation model of rush hour commuting. Motorists in this model choose departure times according to three adaptive strategies. When commuters apply adaptive strategies that require ATIS in the present model, outcomes for both individual motorists and the system as a whole are by several measures worse than when drivers use a simple strategy that does not require ATIS. These results largely agree with an earlier study of a nearly identical model of rushhour commuting. This document is available in HTML on the ...
submitted to Transportation Research Part B Dynamic Network Equilibrium Model of Simultaneous Route / Departure Time Choice for a ManytoOne OD Pattern
, 1996
"... Dynamic equilibrium traffic assignment with elastic demand is analyzed on an over saturated network for a manytoone origindestination pattern. The model aims to obtain timedependent cumulative arrival curves or equivalently arrival flow rates at each of the nodes explicitly taking into account t ..."
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Dynamic equilibrium traffic assignment with elastic demand is analyzed on an over saturated network for a manytoone origindestination pattern. The model aims to obtain timedependent cumulative arrival curves or equivalently arrival flow rates at each of the nodes explicitly taking into account the effects of queues. We assume that the OD demand is elastic; that is, the departure times of users should be determined through the assignment given time constraints at the single destination such as work starting times. We first show that the problem can be decomposed with respect to the arrival time at the destination. Alternative formulations for the problem are then shown as the Variational Inequality, Nonlinear Complementarity and Fixed Point problems using two kinds of unknowns: link flows and arrival times at nodes. Unlike the pathbased formulation in the previous studies, the mapping used in the formulation is simple and, therefore, easy to analyze the mathematical properties of the assignment. Thus, the existence of the solution is established and the uniqueness conditions are examined based upon the formulations. Finally, solution algorithms using merit functions that enforce the global convergence are suggested.