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A CMOS frequency synthesizer with an injectionlocked frequency divider for a 5GHz wireless LAN receiver
 IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits
, 2000
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A 0.3µm CMOS 8Gb/s 4PAM Serial Link Transceiver
 IEEE J. SOLIDSTATE CIRCUITS
, 2000
"... An 8Gb/s 0.3µm CMOS transceiver uses multilevel signaling (4PAM) and transmit preshaping in combination with receive equalization to reduce intersymbol interference due to channel lowpass effects. High onchip frequencies are avoided by multiplexing and demultiplexing the data directly at the pa ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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An 8Gb/s 0.3µm CMOS transceiver uses multilevel signaling (4PAM) and transmit preshaping in combination with receive equalization to reduce intersymbol interference due to channel lowpass effects. High onchip frequencies are avoided by multiplexing and demultiplexing the data directly at the pads. Timing recovery takes advantage of a novel frequency acquisition scheme and a linear phaselocked loop that achieves a loop bandwidth of 35 MHz, phase margin of 50 , and capture range of 20 MHz without a frequency acquisition aid. The transmitted 8Gb/s data are successfully detected by the receiver after a 10m coaxial cable. The 2 × 2mm² chip consumes 1.1 W at 8 Gb/s with a 3V supply.
An accurate and efficient high frequency noise simulation technique for deep submicron MOSFETs
 IEEE Trans. Electron Devices
, 2000
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TECHNICAL LITERATURE The (Pre) History of the Integrated Circuit:
"... The halfcentury of the integrated circuit has witnessed so many technical miracles that perhaps engineers can be forgiven for being a little blase. But a little reflection should astonish even the most jaded: The silicon we use comes as giant monocrystals weighing hundreds of kilograms, and whose i ..."
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The halfcentury of the integrated circuit has witnessed so many technical miracles that perhaps engineers can be forgiven for being a little blase. But a little reflection should astonish even the most jaded: The silicon we use comes as giant monocrystals weighing hundreds of kilograms, and whose impurities are denominated in subparts per billion. On the wafers cut from these boules we regularly inscribe features with lateral dimensions of tens of nanometers (using light whose freespace wavelength is several times larger), and routinely grow layers with controlled thicknesses of only a few atoms. If those technical facts are too familiar, then perhaps a biological comparison will impress: The aggregate number of transistors produced annually exceeds the number of ants on Earth. For each of an estimated
CircuitBased Characterization of Device Noise Using Phase Noise Data
"... Abstract—A circuitbased device noise characterization technique is introduced which uses phase noise data to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of highfrequency noise in MOSFETs. To apply this technique to a typical CMOS process, an oscillator structure is introduced which provides a predi ..."
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Abstract—A circuitbased device noise characterization technique is introduced which uses phase noise data to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of highfrequency noise in MOSFETs. To apply this technique to a typical CMOS process, an oscillator structure is introduced which provides a predictable phase noise level for a given device noise PSD. The analytical equations governing the phase noise of this oscillator are presented and subsequently verified using circuit simulations. Three oscillators, using transistors of various channel lengths, are fabricated in a commercial 0.18 m CMOS process technology to study shortchannel excess noise. It is shown that, at equal current levels, the noise PSD in minimumchannellength transistors is 8.7 dB larger than that in 3minimumchannellength devices. The proposed method is especially suitable for applying to a stateoftheart CMOS process to provide a quantitative analysis of various noise tradeoffs which are sometimes missing in foundryprovided models. Index Terms—Device characterization, excess noise, integrated oscillator, jitter, MOSFET, noise, phase noise, ring oscillator, shortchannel effects.
NOMENCLATURE
"... Abstract—To make RC oscillators suitable for RF applications, their typically poor phasenoise characteristics must be improved. We show that, for a given power consumption, this improvement is fundamentally limited by the fluctuationdissipation theorem of thermodynamics. We also present the analyt ..."
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Abstract—To make RC oscillators suitable for RF applications, their typically poor phasenoise characteristics must be improved. We show that, for a given power consumption, this improvement is fundamentally limited by the fluctuationdissipation theorem of thermodynamics. We also present the analytical formulation of this limit for relaxation (including ring) oscillators using a timedomain phasenoise analysis method which is introduced in this paper. Measurement shows the maximum possible improvement is generally less than 6 dB for ring oscillators, while it can be as high as 21 dB for other relaxation oscillators. The suboptimal performance of relaxation oscillators is attributed to the continuous current flow in these oscillator topologies. These results provide useful insight for feasibility studies of oscillator design. Index Terms—Integrated oscillator, jitter, phase noise, relaxation oscillator, ring oscillator.