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Algorithms for Constraint Satisfaction Problems: A Survey
 AI MAGAZINE
, 1992
"... A large variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of computer science can be viewed as a special case of the constraint satisfaction problem. Some examples are machine vision, belief maintenance, scheduling, temporal reasoning, graph problems, floor plan design, planning genetic ..."
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Cited by 372 (0 self)
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A large variety of problems in Artificial Intelligence and other areas of computer science can be viewed as a special case of the constraint satisfaction problem. Some examples are machine vision, belief maintenance, scheduling, temporal reasoning, graph problems, floor plan design, planning genetic experiments, and the satisfiability problem. A number of different approaches have been developed for solving these problems. Some of them use constraint propagation to simplify the original problem. Others use backtracking to directly search for possible solutions. Some are a combination of these two techniques. This paper presents a brief overview of many of these approaches in a tutorial fashion.
Representing and Using NonFunctional Requirements: A ProcessOriented Approach
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1992
"... The paper proposes a comprehensive framework for representing and using nonfunctional requirements during the development process. The framework consists of five basic components which provide for the representation of nonfunctional requirements in terms of interrelated goals. Such goals can be re ..."
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Cited by 293 (38 self)
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The paper proposes a comprehensive framework for representing and using nonfunctional requirements during the development process. The framework consists of five basic components which provide for the representation of nonfunctional requirements in terms of interrelated goals. Such goals can be refined through refinement methods and can be evaluated in order to determine the degree to which a set of nonfunctional requirements is supported by a particular design. Evidence for the power of the framework is provided through the study of accuracy and performance requirements for information systems. 1
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 127 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
A Model for Belief Revision
, 1988
"... It is generally recognized that the possibdity of detecting contradictions and identifying their sources is an important feature of an intelligent system. Systems that are able to detect contradictions, identify their causes, or readjust their knowledge bases to remove the contradiction, called Beli ..."
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Cited by 118 (29 self)
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It is generally recognized that the possibdity of detecting contradictions and identifying their sources is an important feature of an intelligent system. Systems that are able to detect contradictions, identify their causes, or readjust their knowledge bases to remove the contradiction, called Belief Revision Systems. Truth Maintenance Systems, or Reason Maintenance Systems. have been studied by several researchers in Artificial bttelligence ( AI). In this paper, we present a logic suitable for supporting belief revision systems, discuss the properties that a belief revision system based on this logic will exhibit, and present a particular intplementation of our model of a belief revision system. The system we present differs from most of the systems developed so far in three respects: First, it is baseti on a logic that was developed to support belief revision systems. Second, it uses the rules of inference of the logic to automatically compute the dependencies among propositions rather than having to force the user to do titis, as in many existing systems. Third, it was the first belief revision system whose implementation relies on the manipulation of sets of assumptions, not justifications.
Truth Maintenance
, 1990
"... General purpose truth maintenance systems have received considerable attention in the past few years. This paper discusses the functionality of truth maintenance systems and compares various existing algorithms. Applications and directions for future research are also discussed. Introduction In 197 ..."
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Cited by 110 (3 self)
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General purpose truth maintenance systems have received considerable attention in the past few years. This paper discusses the functionality of truth maintenance systems and compares various existing algorithms. Applications and directions for future research are also discussed. Introduction In 1978 Jon Doyle wrote a masters thesis at the MIT AI Laboratory entitled "Truth Maintenance Systems for Problem Solving" [ Doyle, 1979 ] . In this thesis Doyle described an independent module called a truth maintenance system, or TMS, which maintained beliefs for general problem solving systems. In the twelve years since the appearance of Doyle's TMS a large body of literature has accumulated on truth maintenance. The seminal idea appears not to have been any particular technical mechanism but rather the general concept of an independent module for truth (or belief) maintenance. All truth maintenance systems manipulate proposition symbols and relationships between proposition symbols. I will use...
Query Answering in Information Systems with Integrity Constraints
, 1997
"... The specifications of most of the nowadays ubiquitous informations systems include integrity constraints, i.e. conditions rejecting socalled "invalid" or "inconsistent " data. Information system consistency and query answering have been formalized referring to classical logic implicitly assuming th ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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The specifications of most of the nowadays ubiquitous informations systems include integrity constraints, i.e. conditions rejecting socalled "invalid" or "inconsistent " data. Information system consistency and query answering have been formalized referring to classical logic implicitly assuming that query answering only makes sense with consistent information systems. In practice, however, inconsistent as well as consistent information systems need to be queried. In this paper, it is first argued that classical logic is inappropriate for a formalization of information systems because of its global notion of inconsistency. It is claimed that information systems inconsistency should be understood as a local notion. Then, it is shown that minimal logic, a constructivistic weakening of classical logic which precludes refutation proofs, provides for local inconsistencies that conveniently reflect a practitioner's intuition. Further, minimal logic is shown to be a convenient foundation fo...
A Qualitative Approach to Rigid Body Mechanics
, 1988
"... In order for a program to interact with the world as well as people do, we must provide it with a great deal of commonsense about the way things work. Reasoning 'about the geometric interactions ad motions of objects is an important part of that commons.ns.. Some of the most complex problems we solv ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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In order for a program to interact with the world as well as people do, we must provide it with a great deal of commonsense about the way things work. Reasoning 'about the geometric interactions ad motions of objects is an important part of that commons.ns.. Some of the most complex problems we solve involve reasoning about mechanical devices, such as gears, cams, and docks. Qualitative mechanics is the symbolic analysis of the motions and the geometric in terations of physical objects. This thesis describes a theory for analysis of rigid body mechanisms, an important subset of qualitative mechanics problems. This theory has been implemented ad tested on several mechanisms including a mechanical clock. Beginning with drawings of the parts involved we compute a discrete symbolic description showing changes in position and motion of the parts of the mechanism as well as its global behavior.
Costbounded argumentation
 International Journal of Approximate Reasoning
"... The purpose of this paper is to present new computational techniques for probabilistic argumentation systems. It shows that instead of computing intractable large sets of arguments, it is also possible to find good approximations of the exact solutions in reasonable time. The technique presented is ..."
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Cited by 20 (13 self)
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The purpose of this paper is to present new computational techniques for probabilistic argumentation systems. It shows that instead of computing intractable large sets of arguments, it is also possible to find good approximations of the exact solutions in reasonable time. The technique presented is based on cost functions, which are used to measure the relevance of arguments.
NonDeterministic Lisp with DependencyDirected Backtracking
"... Extending functional Lisp with McCarthy's nondeterministic operator AMB yields a language which can concisely express search problems. Dependencydirected backtracking is a powerful search strategy. We describe a nondeterministic Lisp dialect called SCHEMER and show that it can provide automatic de ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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Extending functional Lisp with McCarthy's nondeterministic operator AMB yields a language which can concisely express search problems. Dependencydirected backtracking is a powerful search strategy. We describe a nondeterministic Lisp dialect called SCHEMER and show that it can provide automatic dependencydirected backtracking. The resulting language provides a convenient interface to this efficient backtracking strategy.
Belief Maintenance with Probabilistic Logic
 In Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Automated Deduction in Non Standard Logics
, 1993
"... Belief maintenance systems are natural extensions of truth maintenance systems that use probabilities rather than boolean truthvalues. This paper introduces a general method for belief maintenance, based on (the propositional fragment of) probabilistic logic, that extends the Boolean Constraint Pro ..."
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Cited by 13 (9 self)
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Belief maintenance systems are natural extensions of truth maintenance systems that use probabilities rather than boolean truthvalues. This paper introduces a general method for belief maintenance, based on (the propositional fragment of) probabilistic logic, that extends the Boolean Constraint Propagation method used by the logicbased truth maintenance systems. From the concept of probabilistic entailment, we derive a set of constraints on the (probabilistic) truthvalues of propositions and we prove their soundness. These constraints are complete with respect to a welldefined set of clauses, and their partial incompleteness is compensated by a gain in computational efficiency. 1 Introduction Truth maintenance systems (tmss) are independent reasoning modules which incrementally maintain the beliefs of a general problem solving system, enabling it to reason with temporary assumptions in the growth of incomplete information. The concept of truth maintenance system is due to Doyle ...