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Regression Modeling in BackPropagation and Projection Pursuit Learning
, 1994
"... We studied and compared two types of connectionist learning methods for modelfree regression problems in this paper. One is the popular backpropagation learning (BPL) well known in the artificial neural networks literature; the other is the projection pursuit learning (PPL) emerged in recent years ..."
Abstract

Cited by 71 (1 self)
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We studied and compared two types of connectionist learning methods for modelfree regression problems in this paper. One is the popular backpropagation learning (BPL) well known in the artificial neural networks literature; the other is the projection pursuit learning (PPL) emerged in recent years in the statistical estimation literature. Both the BPL and the PPL are based on projections of the data in directions determined from interconnection weights. However, unlike the use of fixed nonlinear activations (usually sigmoidal) for the hidden neurons in BPL, the PPL systematically approximates the unknown nonlinear activations. Moreover, the BPL estimates all the weights simultaneously at each iteration, while the PPL estimates the weights cyclically (neuronbyneuron and layerbylayer) at each iteration. Although the BPL and the PPL have comparable training speed when based on a GaussNewton optimization algorithm, the PPL proves more parsimonious in that the PPL requires a fewer hi...
Implementing Projection Pursuit Learning
, 1996
"... This paper examines the implementation of projection pursuit regression (PPR) in the context of machine learning and neural networks. We propose a parametric PPR with direct training which achieves improved training speed and accuracy when compared with nonparametric PPR. Analysis and simulations ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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This paper examines the implementation of projection pursuit regression (PPR) in the context of machine learning and neural networks. We propose a parametric PPR with direct training which achieves improved training speed and accuracy when compared with nonparametric PPR. Analysis and simulations are done for heuristics to choose good initial projection directions. A comparison of a projection pursuit learning network with a one hidden layer sigmoidal neural network shows why grouping hidden units in a projection pursuit learning network is useful. Learning robot arm inverse dynamics is used as an example problem.
Use of Bias Term in Projection Pursuit Learning Improves Approximation and Convergence Properties
 IEEE Trans. Neural Networks
, 1996
"... In a regression problem, one is given a d dimensional random vector X, the components of which are called predictor variables, and a random variable, Y , called response. A regression surface describes a general relationship between variables X and Y . One nonparametric regression technique that h ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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In a regression problem, one is given a d dimensional random vector X, the components of which are called predictor variables, and a random variable, Y , called response. A regression surface describes a general relationship between variables X and Y . One nonparametric regression technique that has been successfully applied to highdimensional data is projection pursuit regression (PPR). In this method, the regression surface is approximated by a sum of empirically determined univariate functions of linear combinations of the predictors. Projection pursuit learning (PPL) proposed by Hwang et al. formulates PPR using a twolayer feedforward neural network. One of the main differences between PPR and PPL is that the smoothers in PPR are nonparametric, whereas those in PPL are based on Hermite functions of some predefined highest order R. While the convergence property of PPR is already known, that for PPL has not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, we demonstrate that PPL networks...