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32
On the Selfsimilar Nature of Ethernet Traffic (Extended Version)
, 1994
"... We demonstrate that Ethernet LAN traffic is statistically selfsimilar, that none of the commonly used traffic models is able to capture this fractallike behavior, that such behavior has serious implications for the design, control, and analysis of highspeed, cellbased networks, and that aggrega ..."
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Cited by 1757 (45 self)
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We demonstrate that Ethernet LAN traffic is statistically selfsimilar, that none of the commonly used traffic models is able to capture this fractallike behavior, that such behavior has serious implications for the design, control, and analysis of highspeed, cellbased networks, and that aggregating streams of such traffic typically intensifies the selfsimilarity (“burstiness”) instead of smoothing it. Our conclusions are supported by a rigorous statistical analysis of hundreds of millions of high quality Ethernet traffic measurements collected between 1989 and 1992, coupled with a discussion of the underlying mathematical and statistical properties of selfsimilarity and their relationship with actual network behavior. We also present traffic models based on selfsimilar stochastic processes that provide simple, accurate, and realistic descriptions of traffic scenarios expected during BISDN deployment.
WideArea Traffic: The Failure of Poisson Modeling
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 1995
"... Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. We evaluate 24 widearea traces, investigating a number of widearea TCP arrival processes (session and con ..."
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Cited by 1405 (21 self)
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Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. We evaluate 24 widearea traces, investigating a number of widearea TCP arrival processes (session and connection arrivals, FTP data connection arrivals within FTP sessions, and TELNET packet arrivals) to determine the error introduced by modeling them using Poisson processes. We find that userinitiated TCP session arrivals, such as remotelogin and filetransfer, are wellmodeled as Poisson processes with fixed hourly rates, but that other connection arrivals deviate considerably from Poisson; that modeling TELNET packet interarrivals as exponential grievously underestimates the burstiness of TELNET traffic, but using the empirical Tcplib [Danzig et al, 1992] interarrivals preserves burstiness over many time scales; and that FTP data connection arrivals within FTP sessions come bunched into “connection bursts,” the largest of which are so large that they completely dominate FTP data traffic. Finally, we offer some results regarding how our findings relate to the possible selfsimilarity of widearea traffic.
Statistical properties of MPEG video traffic . . .
, 1995
"... MPEG video traffic is expected to cause several problems in ATM networks, both from performance and from architectural viewpoint. For the solution of these difficulties, appropriate video traffic models are needed. A detailed statistical analysis of newly generated long MPEG encoded video sequences ..."
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Cited by 268 (3 self)
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MPEG video traffic is expected to cause several problems in ATM networks, both from performance and from architectural viewpoint. For the solution of these difficulties, appropriate video traffic models are needed. A detailed statistical analysis of newly generated long MPEG encoded video sequences is presented and the results are compared to those of existing data sets. Based on the results of the analysis, a layered modeling scheme for MPEG video traffic is suggested which will simplify the finding of appropriate models for a lot performance analysis techniques.
Fast Approximation of SelfSimilar Network Traffic
, 1995
"... Recent network traffic studies argue that network arrival processes are much more faithfully modeled using statistically selfsimilar processes instead of traditional Poisson processes [LTWW94a, PF94]. One difficulty in dealing with selfsimilar models is how to efficiently synthesize traces (sample ..."
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Cited by 94 (0 self)
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Recent network traffic studies argue that network arrival processes are much more faithfully modeled using statistically selfsimilar processes instead of traditional Poisson processes [LTWW94a, PF94]. One difficulty in dealing with selfsimilar models is how to efficiently synthesize traces (sample paths) corresponding to selfsimilar traffic. We present a fast Fourier transform method for synthesizing approximate selfsimilar sample paths and assess its performance and validity. We find that the method is as fast or faster than existing methods and appears to generate a closer approximation to true selfsimilar sample paths than the other known fast method (Random Midpoint Displacement). We then discuss issues in using such synthesized sample paths for simulating network traffic, and how an approximation used by our method can dramatically speed up evaluation of Whittle's estimator for H, the Hurst parameter giving the strength of longrange dependence present in a selfsimilar time s...
Statistical analysis of CCSN/SS7 traffic data from working CCS subnetworks
 IEEE JSAC
, 1994
"... In this paper we report on an ongoing statistical analysis of actual CCSN traffic data. The data consist of approximately 170 million signaling messages collected from a variety of different working CCS subnetworks. The key findings from our analysis concern: (1) the characteristics of both the tele ..."
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Cited by 71 (6 self)
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In this paper we report on an ongoing statistical analysis of actual CCSN traffic data. The data consist of approximately 170 million signaling messages collected from a variety of different working CCS subnetworks. The key findings from our analysis concern: (1) the characteristics of both the telephone call arrival process and the signaling message arrival process, (2) the tail behavior of the call holding time distribution, and (3) the observed performance of the CCSN with respect to a variety of performance and reliability measurements. 1.
Fast, Approximate Synthesis of Fractional Gaussian Noise for Generating SelfSimilar Network Traffic
 ACM SIGCOMM, Computer Communication Review
, 1997
"... Recent network traffic studies argue that network arrival processes are much more faithfully modeled using statistically selfsimilar processes instead of traditional Poisson processes [LTWW94, PF95]. One difficulty in dealing with selfsimilar models is how to efficiently synthesize traces (sample p ..."
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Cited by 58 (2 self)
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Recent network traffic studies argue that network arrival processes are much more faithfully modeled using statistically selfsimilar processes instead of traditional Poisson processes [LTWW94, PF95]. One difficulty in dealing with selfsimilar models is how to efficiently synthesize traces (sample paths) corresponding to selfsimilar traffic. We present a fast Fourier transform method for synthesizing approximate selfsimilar sample paths for one type of selfsimilar process, Fractional Gaussian Noise, and assess its performance and validity. We find that the method is as fast or faster than existing methods and appears to generate close approximations to true selfsimilar sample paths. We also discuss issues in using such synthesized sample paths for simulating network traffic, and how an approximation used by our method can dramatically speed up evaluation of Whittle's estimator for H, the Hurst parameter giving the strength of longrange dependence present in a selfsimilar time series. 1
On Resource Management and QoS Guarantees For Long Range Dependent Traffic
 in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '95
, 1994
"... It has been known for several years now that variablebitrate video sources are strongly autocorrelated. Recently, several studies have indicated that the resulting stochastic processes exhibit longrange dependence properties. This implies that large buffers at intermediate switching points may n ..."
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Cited by 46 (10 self)
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It has been known for several years now that variablebitrate video sources are strongly autocorrelated. Recently, several studies have indicated that the resulting stochastic processes exhibit longrange dependence properties. This implies that large buffers at intermediate switching points may not provide adequate delay performance for such classes of traffic in Broadband packetswitched networks (such as ATM). In this paper, we study the effect of longmemory processes on queue length statistics of a single queue system through a controlled fractionally differenced ARIMA(1; d; 0) input process. This process has two parameters OE 1 (0 OE 1 1) and d (0 d ! 1=2) representing an autoregressive component and a longrange dependent component, respectively. Results show that the queue length statistics studied (mean, variance and the 0:999 quantile) are proportional to e c1 OE 1 e c2 d ; where (c 1 ; c 2 ) are positive constants, and c 2 ? c 1 : The effect of the autocorrelation...
Simple and Efficient Models for Variable Bit Rate MPEG Video Traffic
 Performance Evaluation
, 1995
"... For the performance analysis of ATM networks carrying Variable Bit Rate (VBR) MPEG video sequences there is a need for appropriate video traffic models. In this paper, we discuss Markov chain models for this specific type of traffic with respect to several statistical properties and their ability to ..."
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Cited by 44 (2 self)
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For the performance analysis of ATM networks carrying Variable Bit Rate (VBR) MPEG video sequences there is a need for appropriate video traffic models. In this paper, we discuss Markov chain models for this specific type of traffic with respect to several statistical properties and their ability to predict cell losses at buffers of ATM multiplexers. We intentionally selected a simple model class to check for its appropriateness to model a complex traffic type. The results of this paper show that Markov chain models can be used efficiently for MPEG video traffic under the following conditions. The Group of Pictures (GOP) generation process should be modeled rather than the frame process. If the performance measures depend on the correlation properties of the video traffic the scene process should also be considered in the course of the model development. 1 Introduction In BISDNs on the basis of the ATM, a major part of the traffic will be generated by multimedia sources like teleco...
Predicting Quality of Service for Traffic with LongRange Fluctuations
, 1995
"... We present the tail asymptotics in a queue serviced at constant rate and whose input process has longrange dependence, for example, fractional Brownian Motion (fBM) with Hurst parameter H ? 1=2. Some heterogeneous superpositions of such sources are also treated. We examine the experimental basis fo ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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We present the tail asymptotics in a queue serviced at constant rate and whose input process has longrange dependence, for example, fractional Brownian Motion (fBM) with Hurst parameter H ? 1=2. Some heterogeneous superpositions of such sources are also treated. We examine the experimental basis for selfsimilar modelling. If fluctuations in traffic levels can be accounted for by variations in timedependent external parameters, rather than statistically through parsimonious modelling by fBM, then Quality of Service predictions may be achieved by applications of techniques familiar for shortrange dependent traffic.
A Survey of Statistical Source Models for VariableBitRate Compressed Video
 Multimedia Systems
, 1999
"... . It is predicted that, in the near future, the transport of compressed video will pervade computer networks. Variablebitrate (VBR) encoded video is expected to become a significant source of network traffic, due to its advantages in statistical multiplexing gain and consistent video quality. Both ..."
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Cited by 22 (0 self)
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. It is predicted that, in the near future, the transport of compressed video will pervade computer networks. Variablebitrate (VBR) encoded video is expected to become a significant source of network traffic, due to its advantages in statistical multiplexing gain and consistent video quality. Both systems analysts and developers need to assess and study the impact these sources will have on their networks and networking products. To this end, suitable statistical source models are required to analyze performance metrics such as packet loss, delay and jitter. This paper provides a survey of VBR source models which can be used to drive network simulations. The models are categorized into four groups: Markov chain/linear regression, TES, selfsimilar and i.i.d/analytical. We present models which have been used for VBR sources containing moderatetosignificant scene changes and moderatetofull motion. A description of each model is given along with corresponding advantages and shortcom...