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155
Predictive Models for the Breeder Genetic Algorithm  I. Continuous Parameter Optimization
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1993
"... In this paper a new genetic algorithm called the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is introduced. The BGA is based on artificial selection similar to that used by human breeders. A predictive model for the BGA is presented which is derived from quantitative genetics. The model is used to predict t ..."
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Cited by 342 (25 self)
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In this paper a new genetic algorithm called the Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is introduced. The BGA is based on artificial selection similar to that used by human breeders. A predictive model for the BGA is presented which is derived from quantitative genetics. The model is used to predict the behavior of the BGA for simple test functions. Different mutation schemes are compared by computing the expected progress to the solution. The numerical performance of the BGA is demonstrated on a test suite of multimodal functions. The number of function evaluations needed to locate the optimum scales only as n ln(n) where n is the number of parameters. Results up to n = 1000 are reported.
Niching Methods for Genetic Algorithms
, 1995
"... Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This ..."
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Cited by 191 (1 self)
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Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This study presents a comprehensive treatment of niching methods and the related topic of population diversity. Its purpose is to analyze existing niching methods and to design improved niching methods. To achieve this purpose, it first develops a general framework for the modelling of niching methods, and then applies this framework to construct models of individual niching methods, specifically crowding and sharing methods. Using a constructed model of crowding, this study determines why crowding methods over the last two decades have not made effective niching methods. A series of tests and design modifications results in the development of a highly effective form of crowding, called determin...
A cooperative coevolutionary approach to function optimization
, 1994
"... Abstract. A general model for the coevolution of cooperating species is presented. This model is instantiated and tested in the domain of function optimization, and compared with a traditional GAbased function optimizer. The results are encouraging in two respects. They suggest ways in which the pe ..."
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Cited by 161 (10 self)
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Abstract. A general model for the coevolution of cooperating species is presented. This model is instantiated and tested in the domain of function optimization, and compared with a traditional GAbased function optimizer. The results are encouraging in two respects. They suggest ways in which the performance of GA and other EAbased optimizers can be improved, and they suggest a new approach to evolving complex structures such as neural networks and rule sets. 1
A Survey of Parallel Genetic Algorithms
 CALCULATEURS PARALLELES, RESEAUX ET SYSTEMS REPARTIS
, 1998
"... Genetic algorithms (GAs) are powerful search techniques that are used successfully to solve problems in many different disciplines. Parallel GAs are particularly easy to implement and promise substantial gains in performance. As such, there has been extensive research in this field. This survey att ..."
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Cited by 147 (5 self)
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Genetic algorithms (GAs) are powerful search techniques that are used successfully to solve problems in many different disciplines. Parallel GAs are particularly easy to implement and promise substantial gains in performance. As such, there has been extensive research in this field. This survey attempts to collect, organize, and present in a unified way some of the most representative publications on parallel genetic algorithms. To organize the literature, the paper presents a categorization of the techniques used to parallelize GAs, and shows examples of all of them. However, since the majority of the research in this field has concentrated on parallel GAs with multiple populations, the survey focuses on this type of algorithms. Also, the paper describes some of the most significant problems in modeling and designing multipopulation parallel GAs and presents some recent advancements.
A Comparison between Cellular Encoding and Direct Encoding for Genetic Neural Networks
 Genetic Programming 1996: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference
, 1996
"... This paper compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for Artificial Neural Networks optimized by evolutionary algorithms. Direct Encoding encodes the weights for an a priori fixed neural network architecture. Cellular Encoding encodes both weights and the architecture of the neural netw ..."
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Cited by 139 (0 self)
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This paper compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for Artificial Neural Networks optimized by evolutionary algorithms. Direct Encoding encodes the weights for an a priori fixed neural network architecture. Cellular Encoding encodes both weights and the architecture of the neural network. In previous studies, Direct Encoding and Cellular Encoding have been used to create neural networks for balancing 1 and 2 poles attached to a cart on a fixed track. The poles are balanced by a controller that pushes the cart to the left or the right. In some cases velocity information about the pole and cart is provided as an input; in other cases the network must learn to balance a single pole without velocity information. A careful study of the behavior of these systems suggests that it is possible to balance a single pole with velocity information as an input and without learning to compute the velocity. A new fitness function is introduced that forces the neural net...
Automatic Definition of Modular Neural Networks
, 1995
"... This paper illustrates an artificial developmental system that is a computationally efficient technique for the automatic generation of complex Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Artificial developmental system can develop a graph grammar into a modular ANN made of a combination of more simple subnet ..."
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Cited by 139 (4 self)
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This paper illustrates an artificial developmental system that is a computationally efficient technique for the automatic generation of complex Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Artificial developmental system can develop a graph grammar into a modular ANN made of a combination of more simple subnetworks. A genetic algorithm is used to evolve coded grammars that generates ANNs for controlling a sixlegged robot locomotion. A mechanism for the automatic definition of subneural networks is incorporated. Using this mechanism, the genetic algorithm can automatically decompose a problem into subproblems, generate a subANN for solving the subproblem, and instantiate copies of this subANN to build a higher level ANN that solves the problem. We report some simulation results showing that the same problem cannot be solved if the mechanism for automatic definition of subnetworks is suppressed. We support our argumentation with pictures describing the steps of development, how ANN structures ar...
Simulated Binary Crossover for Continuous Search Space
, 1994
"... The success of binarycoded genetic algorithms (GAs) in problems having discrete search space largely depends on the coding used to represent the problem variables and on the crossover operator that propagates buildingblocks from parent strings to children strings. In solving optimization problems ..."
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Cited by 126 (26 self)
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The success of binarycoded genetic algorithms (GAs) in problems having discrete search space largely depends on the coding used to represent the problem variables and on the crossover operator that propagates buildingblocks from parent strings to children strings. In solving optimization problems having continuous search space, binarycoded GAs discretize the search space by using a coding of the problem variables in binary strings. However, the coding of realvalued variables in finitelength strings causes a number of difficultiesinability to achieve arbitrary precision in the obtained solution, fixed mapping of problem variables, inherent Hamming cliff problem associated with the binary coding, and processing of Holland's schemata in continuous search space. Although, a number of realcoded GAs are developed to solve optimization problems having a continuous search space, the search powers of these crossover operators are not adequate. In this paper, the search power of a cross...
Serial and parallel genetic algorithms as function optimizers
 In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
, 1993
"... Parallel genetic algorithms are often very different from the \traditional " genetic algorithm proposed by Holland, especially with regards to population structure and selection mechanisms. In this paper we compare several parallel genetic algorithms across a wide range of optimization functions in ..."
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Cited by 122 (3 self)
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Parallel genetic algorithms are often very different from the \traditional " genetic algorithm proposed by Holland, especially with regards to population structure and selection mechanisms. In this paper we compare several parallel genetic algorithms across a wide range of optimization functions in an attempt to determine whether these changes have positive or negative impact on their problemsolving capabilities. The ndings indicate that the parallel structures perform as well as or better than standard versions, even without taking parallel hardware into account. 1
Evolutionary Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
, 1996
"... . Evolutionary algorithms have been gaining increased attention the past few years because of their versatility and are being successfully applied in several different fields of study. We group under this heading a family of new computing techniques rooted in biological evolution that can be used fo ..."
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Cited by 109 (31 self)
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. Evolutionary algorithms have been gaining increased attention the past few years because of their versatility and are being successfully applied in several different fields of study. We group under this heading a family of new computing techniques rooted in biological evolution that can be used for solving hard problems. In this chapter we present a survey of genetic algorithms and genetic programming, two important evolutionary techniques. We discuss their parallel implementations and some notable extensions, focusing on their potential applications in the field of evolvable hardware. 1 Introduction The performance of modern computers is quite impressive; it seems fair to say that computers are far better than humans in many domains and that they comprise a powerful tool that is constantly changing our view of the world. On scientific and engineering numbercrunching problems performance increases steadily and we are able to tackle socalled "grand challenge" problems with gigaflop...
Evolution in time and space  the parallel genetic algorithm
 FOUNDATIONS OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS
, 1991
"... The parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) uses two major modifications compared to the genetic algorithm. Firstly, selection for mating is distributed. Individuals live in a 2D world. Selection of a mate is done by each individual independently in its neighborhood. Secondly, each individual may improve ..."
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Cited by 108 (13 self)
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The parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) uses two major modifications compared to the genetic algorithm. Firstly, selection for mating is distributed. Individuals live in a 2D world. Selection of a mate is done by each individual independently in its neighborhood. Secondly, each individual may improve its fitness during its lifetime by e.g. local hillclimbing. The PGA is totally asynchronous, running with maximal efficiency on MIMD parallel computers. The search strategy of the PGA is based on a small number of active and intelligent individuals, whereas a GA uses a large population of passive individuals. We will investigate the PGA with deceptive problems and the traveling salesman problem. We outline why and when the PGA is succesful. Abstractly, a PGA is a parallel search with information exchange between the individuals. If we represent the optimization problem as a fitness landscape in a certain configuration space, we see, that a PGA tries to jump from two local minima to a third, still better local minima, by using the crossover operator. This jump is (probabilistically) successful, if the fitness landscape has a certain correlation. We show the correlation for the traveling salesman problem by a configuration space analysis. The PGA explores implicitly the above correlation.