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The Hardness Of Approximation: Gap Location
 Computational Complexity
, 1994
"... . We refine the complexity analysis of approximation problems by relating it to a new parameter called gap location. Many of the results obtained so far for approximations yield satisfactory analysis with respect to this refined parameter, but some known results (e.g., max kcolorability, max 3dim ..."
Abstract

Cited by 79 (0 self)
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. We refine the complexity analysis of approximation problems by relating it to a new parameter called gap location. Many of the results obtained so far for approximations yield satisfactory analysis with respect to this refined parameter, but some known results (e.g., max kcolorability, max 3dimensional matching and max notallequal 3sat) fall short of doing so. As a second contribution, our work fills the gap in these cases by presenting new reductions. Next, we present definitions and hardness results of new approximation versions of some NPcomplete optimization problems. The problems we treat are vertex cover (for which we define a different optimization problem from the one treated in Papadimitriou & Yannakakis 1991), kedge coloring, and set splitting.
On Monotone Formula Closure of SZK
, 1994
"... We investigate structural properties of statistical zero knowledge (SZK) both in the interactive and in the noninteractive model. Specifically, we look into the closure properties of SZK languages under monotone logical formula composition. This gives rise to new protocol techniques. We show that i ..."
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Cited by 41 (1 self)
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We investigate structural properties of statistical zero knowledge (SZK) both in the interactive and in the noninteractive model. Specifically, we look into the closure properties of SZK languages under monotone logical formula composition. This gives rise to new protocol techniques. We show that interactive SZK for random self reducible languages (RSR) (and for coRSR) is closed under monotone boolean operations. Namely, we give SZK proofs for monotone boolean formulae whose atoms are statements about an SZK language which is RSR (or a complement of RSR). All previously known languages in SZK are in these classes. We then show that if a language L has a noninteractive SZK proof system then honestverifier interactive SZK proof systems exist for all monotone boolean formulae whose atoms are statements about the complement of L. We also discuss extensions and generalizations. 1 Introduction Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff [34] introduced the notion of a zeroknowledge proof, a proof ...
Ulterior Reference Counting: Fast Garbage Collection without a Long Wait
 IN OOPSLA 2003 ACM CONFERENCE ON OBJECTORIENTED PROGRAMMING, SYSTEMS, LANGUAGES AND APPLICATIONS
, 2003
"... General purpose garbage collectors have yet to combine short pause times with high throughput. For example, generational collectors can achieve high throughput. They have modest average pause times, but occasionally collect the whole heap and consequently incur long pauses. At the other extreme, con ..."
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Cited by 39 (8 self)
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General purpose garbage collectors have yet to combine short pause times with high throughput. For example, generational collectors can achieve high throughput. They have modest average pause times, but occasionally collect the whole heap and consequently incur long pauses. At the other extreme, concurrent collectors, including reference counting, attain short pause times but with significant performance penalties. This paper introduces a new hybrid collector that combines copying generational collection for the young objects and reference counting the old objects to achieve both goals. It restricts copying and reference counting to the object demographics for which they perform well. Key to our algorithm is a generalization of deferred reference counting we call Ulterior Reference Counting. Ulterior reference counting safely ignores mutations to select heap objects. We compare a generational reference counting hybrid with pure reference counting, pure marksweep, and hybrid generational marksweep collectors. This new collector combines excellent throughput, matching a high performance generational marksweep hybrid, with low maximum pause times.