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Learning Bayesian networks: The combination of knowledge and statistical data
 Machine Learning
, 1995
"... We describe scoring metrics for learning Bayesian networks from a combination of user knowledge and statistical data. We identify two important properties of metrics, which we call event equivalence and parameter modularity. These properties have been mostly ignored, but when combined, greatly simpl ..."
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Cited by 905 (34 self)
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We describe scoring metrics for learning Bayesian networks from a combination of user knowledge and statistical data. We identify two important properties of metrics, which we call event equivalence and parameter modularity. These properties have been mostly ignored, but when combined, greatly simplify the encoding of a user’s prior knowledge. In particular, a user can express his knowledge—for the most part—as a single prior Bayesian network for the domain. 1
A Tutorial on Learning Bayesian Networks
 Communications of the ACM
, 1995
"... We examine a graphical representation of uncertain knowledge called a Bayesian network. The representation is easy to construct and interpret, yet has formal probabilistic semantics making it suitable for statistical manipulation. We show how we can use the representation to learn new knowledge by c ..."
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Cited by 298 (12 self)
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We examine a graphical representation of uncertain knowledge called a Bayesian network. The representation is easy to construct and interpret, yet has formal probabilistic semantics making it suitable for statistical manipulation. We show how we can use the representation to learn new knowledge by combining domain knowledge with statistical data. 1 Introduction Many techniques for learning rely heavily on data. In contrast, the knowledge encoded in expert systems usually comes solely from an expert. In this paper, we examine a knowledge representation, called a Bayesian network, that lets us have the best of both worlds. Namely, the representation allows us to learn new knowledge by combining expert domain knowledge and statistical data. A Bayesian network is a graphical representation of uncertain knowledge that most people find easy to construct and interpret. In addition, the representation has formal probabilistic semantics, making it suitable for statistical manipulation (Howard,...
A Guide to the Literature on Learning Probabilistic Networks From Data
, 1996
"... This literature review discusses different methods under the general rubric of learning Bayesian networks from data, and includes some overlapping work on more general probabilistic networks. Connections are drawn between the statistical, neural network, and uncertainty communities, and between the ..."
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Cited by 171 (0 self)
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This literature review discusses different methods under the general rubric of learning Bayesian networks from data, and includes some overlapping work on more general probabilistic networks. Connections are drawn between the statistical, neural network, and uncertainty communities, and between the different methodological communities, such as Bayesian, description length, and classical statistics. Basic concepts for learning and Bayesian networks are introduced and methods are then reviewed. Methods are discussed for learning parameters of a probabilistic network, for learning the structure, and for learning hidden variables. The presentation avoids formal definitions and theorems, as these are plentiful in the literature, and instead illustrates key concepts with simplified examples. Keywords Bayesian networks, graphical models, hidden variables, learning, learning structure, probabilistic networks, knowledge discovery. I. Introduction Probabilistic networks or probabilistic gra...
Learning Bayesian Networks is NPHard
, 1994
"... Algorithms for learning Bayesian networks from data have two components: a scoring metric and a search procedure. The scoring metric computes a score reflecting the goodnessoffit of the structure to the data. The search procedure tries to identify network structures with high scores. Heckerman et ..."
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Cited by 131 (2 self)
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Algorithms for learning Bayesian networks from data have two components: a scoring metric and a search procedure. The scoring metric computes a score reflecting the goodnessoffit of the structure to the data. The search procedure tries to identify network structures with high scores. Heckerman et al. (1994) introduced a Bayesian metric, called the BDe metric, that computes the relative posterior probability of a network structure given data. They show that the metric has a property desireable for inferring causal structure from data. In this paper, we show that the problem of deciding whether there is a Bayesian networkamong those where each node has at most k parentsthat has a relative posterior probability greater than a given constant is NPcomplete, when the BDe metric is used. 1 Introduction Recently, many researchers have begun to investigate methods for learning Bayesian networks, including Bayesian methods [Cooper and Herskovits, 1991, Buntine, 1991, York 1992, Spiegel...
A Bayesian approach to learning causal networks
 In Uncertainty in AI: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference
, 1995
"... Whereas acausal Bayesian networks represent probabilistic independence, causal Bayesian networks represent causal relationships. In this paper, we examine Bayesian methods for learning both types of networks. Bayesian methods for learning acausal networks are fairly well developed. These methods oft ..."
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Cited by 57 (11 self)
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Whereas acausal Bayesian networks represent probabilistic independence, causal Bayesian networks represent causal relationships. In this paper, we examine Bayesian methods for learning both types of networks. Bayesian methods for learning acausal networks are fairly well developed. These methods often employ assumptions to facilitate the construction of priors, including the assumptions of parameter independence, parameter modularity, and likelihood equivalence. We show that although these assumptions also can be appropriate for learning causal networks, we need additional assumptions in order to learn causal networks. We introduce two sufficient assumptions, called mechanism independence and component independence. We show that these new assumptions, when combined with parameter independence, parameter modularity, and likelihood equivalence, allow us to apply methods for learning acausal networks to learn causal networks. 1
the Size of a Closed Population
, 1992
"... A Bayesian methodology for estimating the size of a closed population from multiple incomplete administrative lists is proposed. The approach allows for a variety of dependence structures between the lists, inclusion of covariates, and explicitly accounts for model uncertainty. Interval estimates fr ..."
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A Bayesian methodology for estimating the size of a closed population from multiple incomplete administrative lists is proposed. The approach allows for a variety of dependence structures between the lists, inclusion of covariates, and explicitly accounts for model uncertainty. Interval estimates from this approach are compared to frequentist and previously published Bayesian approaches, and found to be superior. Several examples are considered. KEYWORDS: Bayesian graphical model; Capturerecapture; Closed population estimation; Chordal graph; Contingency table; Decomposable loglinear model; Markov distribution. Contents