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The Complexity Of Propositional Proofs
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 1995
"... This paper of Tseitin is a landmark as the first to give nontrivial lower bounds for propositional proofs; although it predates the first papers on ..."
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Cited by 109 (3 self)
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This paper of Tseitin is a landmark as the first to give nontrivial lower bounds for propositional proofs; although it predates the first papers on
How to Lie Without Being (easily) Convicted and the Lengths of Proofs in Propositional Calculus
"... We shall describe two general methods for proving lower bounds on the lengths of proofs in propositional calculus and give examples of such lower bounds. One of the methods is based on interactive proofs where one player is claiming that he has a falsifying assignment for a tautology and the sec ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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We shall describe two general methods for proving lower bounds on the lengths of proofs in propositional calculus and give examples of such lower bounds. One of the methods is based on interactive proofs where one player is claiming that he has a falsifying assignment for a tautology and the second player is trying to convict him of a lie.
Bounded Arithmetic and Propositional Proof Complexity
 in Logic of Computation
, 1995
"... This is a survey of basic facts about bounded arithmetic and about the relationships between bounded arithmetic and propositional proof complexity. We introduce the theories S 2 of bounded arithmetic and characterize their proof theoretic strength and their provably total functions in terms of t ..."
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This is a survey of basic facts about bounded arithmetic and about the relationships between bounded arithmetic and propositional proof complexity. We introduce the theories S 2 of bounded arithmetic and characterize their proof theoretic strength and their provably total functions in terms of the polynomial time hierarchy. We discuss other axiomatizations of bounded arithmetic, such as minimization axioms. It is shown that the bounded arithmetic hierarchy collapses if and only if bounded arithmetic proves that the polynomial hierarchy collapses. We discuss Frege and extended Frege proof length, and the two translations from bounded arithmetic proofs into propositional proofs. We present some theorems on bounding the lengths of propositional interpolants in terms of cutfree proof length and in terms of the lengths of resolution refutations. We then define the RazborovRudich notion of natural proofs of P NP and discuss Razborov's theorem that certain fragments of bounded arithmetic cannot prove superpolynomial lower bounds on circuit size, assuming a strong cryptographic conjecture. Finally, a complete presentation of a proof of the theorem of Razborov is given. 1 Review of Computational Complexity 1.1 Feasibility This article will be concerned with various "feasible" forms of computability and of provability. For something to be feasibly computable, it must be computable in practice in the real world, not merely e#ectively computable in the sense of being recursively computable.
ON THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN ARITHMETIC THEORIES AND PROPOSITIONAL PROOF SYSTEMS
"... Bounded arithmetic is closely related to propositional proof systems, and this relation has found many fruitful applications. The aim of this paper is to explain and develop the general correspondence between propositional proof systems and arithmetic theories, as introduced by Krajíček and Pudlák ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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Bounded arithmetic is closely related to propositional proof systems, and this relation has found many fruitful applications. The aim of this paper is to explain and develop the general correspondence between propositional proof systems and arithmetic theories, as introduced by Krajíček and Pudlák [42]. Instead of focusing on the relation between particular proof systems and theories, we favour a general axiomatic approach to this correspondence. In the course of the development we particularly highlight the role played by logical closure properties of propositional proof systems, thereby obtaining a characterization of extensions of EF in terms of a simple combination of these closure properties.
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"... Abstract. Bounded arithmetic is closely related to propositional proof systems, and this relation has found many fruitful applications. The aim of this paper is to explain and develop the general correspondence between propositional proof systems and arithmetic theories, as introduced by Kraj́ıček ..."
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Abstract. Bounded arithmetic is closely related to propositional proof systems, and this relation has found many fruitful applications. The aim of this paper is to explain and develop the general correspondence between propositional proof systems and arithmetic theories, as introduced by Kraj́ıček and Pudlák [41]. Instead of focusing on the relation between particular proof systems and theories, we favour a general axiomatic approach to this correspondence. In the course of the development we particularly highlight the role played by logical closure properties of propositional proof systems, thereby obtaining a characterization of extensions of EF in terms of a simple combination of these closure properties. Using logical methods has a rich tradition in complexity theory. In particular, there are very close relations between computational complexity, propositional proof complexity, and bounded arithmetic, and the central tasks in these areas, i.e., separating complexity classes, proving lower bounds to the length of propositional proofs, and separating arithmetic theories, can be understood as different approaches towards the same problem. While each of these fields supplies its