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How to leak a secret
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE THEORY AND APPLICATION OF CRYPTOLOGY AND INFORMATION SECURITY: ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY
, 2001
"... In this paper we formalize the notion of a ring signature, which makes it possible to specify a set of possible signers without revealing which member actually produced the signature. Unlike group signatures, ring signatures have no group managers, no setup procedures, no revocation procedures, and ..."
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Cited by 1754 (4 self)
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In this paper we formalize the notion of a ring signature, which makes it possible to specify a set of possible signers without revealing which member actually produced the signature. Unlike group signatures, ring signatures have no group managers, no setup procedures, no revocation procedures, and no coordination: any user can choose any set of possible signers that includes himself, and sign any message by using his secret key and the others ’ public keys, without getting their approval or assistance. Ring signatures provide an elegant way to leak authoritative secrets in an anonymous way, to sign casual email in a way which can only be verified by its intended recipient, and to solve other problems in multiparty computations. The main contribution of this paper is a new construction of such signatures which is unconditionally signerambiguous, provably secure in the random oracle model, and exceptionally efficient: adding each ring member increases the cost of signing or verifying by a single modular multiplication and a single symmetric encryption.
Survey of clustering algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
, 2005
"... Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand, equips us with many tools. On the other hand, the ..."
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Cited by 231 (3 self)
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Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand, equips us with many tools. On the other hand, the profusion of options causes confusion. We survey clustering algorithms for data sets appearing in statistics, computer science, and machine learning, and illustrate their applications in some benchmark data sets, the traveling salesman problem, and bioinformatics, a new field attracting intensive efforts. Several tightly related topics, proximity measure, and cluster validation, are also discussed.
Open shop scheduling to minimize finish time
 JACM
, 1976
"... ABSTRACT A linear time algorithm to obtain a minimum finish time schedule for the twoprocessor open shop together with a polynomial time algorithm to obtain a minimum finish time preemptive schedule for open shops with more than two processors are obtained It Is also shown that the problem of obtai ..."
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Cited by 93 (4 self)
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ABSTRACT A linear time algorithm to obtain a minimum finish time schedule for the twoprocessor open shop together with a polynomial time algorithm to obtain a minimum finish time preemptive schedule for open shops with more than two processors are obtained It Is also shown that the problem of obtaining mimmum fimsh time nonpreemptlve schedules when the open shop has more than two processors is NPcomplete.
Topological Design of Local Area Networks Using Genetic Algorithms
 IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking
, 1996
"... Continually growing number of users have to exchange increasing amounts of information. Local Area Networks (LANs) are commonly used as the communication infrastructure that meets the demands of the users in the local environment. These networks typically consist of several LAN segments connected to ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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Continually growing number of users have to exchange increasing amounts of information. Local Area Networks (LANs) are commonly used as the communication infrastructure that meets the demands of the users in the local environment. These networks typically consist of several LAN segments connected together via bridges. In this paper we describe an algorithm for designing LANs with the objective of minimizing the average network delay. The topology design includes issues such as determination of the number of segments in the network, allocating the users to the different segments and determining the interconnections and routing among the segments. The determination of the optimal LAN topology is a very complicated combinatorial optimization problem. Therefore, a heuristic algorithm that is based on genetic ideas is used. Numerical examples are provided and the quality of the designs obtained by using the algorithm is compared with lower bounds on the average network delay that are develo...
MaxSolver: An efficient exact algorithm for (weighted) maximum satisfiability
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2005
"... Artificial Intelligence, to appear Maximum Boolean satisfiability (maxSAT) is the optimization counterpart of Boolean satisfiability (SAT), in which a variable assignment is sought to satisfy the maximum number of clauses in a Boolean formula. A branch and bound algorithm based on the DavisPutnam ..."
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Cited by 32 (1 self)
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Artificial Intelligence, to appear Maximum Boolean satisfiability (maxSAT) is the optimization counterpart of Boolean satisfiability (SAT), in which a variable assignment is sought to satisfy the maximum number of clauses in a Boolean formula. A branch and bound algorithm based on the DavisPutnamLogemannLoveland procedure (DPLL) is one of the most competitive exact algorithms for solving maxSAT. In this paper, we propose and investigate a number of strategies for maxSAT. The first strategy is a set of unit propagation or unit resolution rules for maxSAT. We summarize three existing unit propagation rules and propose a new one based on a nonlinear programming formulation of maxSAT. The second strategy is an effective lower bound based on linear programming (LP). We show that the LP lower bound can be made effective as the number of clauses increases. The third strategy consists of a a binaryclause first rule and a dynamicweighting variable ordering rule, which are motivated by a thorough analysis of two existing wellknown variable orderings. Based on the analysis of these strategies, we develop an exact solver for both maxSAT and weighted maxSAT. Our experimental results on random problem instances and many instances from the maxSAT libraries show that our new solver outperforms most of the existing exact maxSAT solvers, with orders of magnitude of improvement in many cases.
Using Destination Set Grouping to Improve the Performance of WindowControlled Multipoint Connections
 COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS JOURNAL
, 1996
"... In conventional multicast communication, the source carries a single conversation with all destination nodes. If a node on the path to any destination becomes congested, the throughput to all destinations is reduced, thus treating some destination nodes unfairly. We consider a windowcontrolled mult ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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In conventional multicast communication, the source carries a single conversation with all destination nodes. If a node on the path to any destination becomes congested, the throughput to all destinations is reduced, thus treating some destination nodes unfairly. We consider a windowcontrolled multipoint connection and study the use of destination set grouping, where the destination set can be split into disjoint subgroups with the source carrying independent conversations with each subgroup. We present a static grouping heuristic that can obtain near optimum grouping for static network environments and a dynamic grouping protocol which can adjust the grouping and the window sizes per group in response to changing network conditions. The performance of the static grouping heuristic and the dynamic grouping protocol are studied using simulation and compared with singlegroup multicasting.
Adaptive FaultTolerant Routing in Hypercube Multicomputers
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 1990
"... A connected hypercube with faulty links and/or nodes is called an injured hypercube. To enable any nonfaulty node to communicate with any other nonfaulty node in an injured hypcrcube, the information on component failures has to be made available to nonfaulty nodes so as to route messages around ..."
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Cited by 31 (2 self)
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A connected hypercube with faulty links and/or nodes is called an injured hypercube. To enable any nonfaulty node to communicate with any other nonfaulty node in an injured hypcrcube, the information on component failures has to be made available to nonfaulty nodes so as to route messages around the faulty components. We propose first a distributed adaptive faulttolerant routing scheme for an injured hypercube in which each node is required to know only the condition of its own links. Despite its simplicity, this scheme is shown to be capable of routing messages successfully in an injured hypercube as long as the number of faulty components is less than n. Moreover, it is proved that this scheme routes messages via shortest paths with a rather high probability and the expected length of a resulting path is very close to that of a shortest path. Since the assumption that the number of faulty components is less than n in an ndimensional hypercube might limit the usefulness of the above scheme, we also introduce a routing scheme based on depthfirst search which works in the presence of an arbitrary number of faulty components. Due to the insufficient information on faulty components, however, the paths chosen by the above scheme may not always be the shortest. To guarantee all messages to be routed via shortest paths, we propose to equip every node with more information than that on its own links. The effects of this additional information on routing efficiency are analyzed, and the additional information to be kept at each node for the shortest path routing is determined. Several examples and remarks are also given to illustrate bur results. Index Terms: Injured and regular hypercubes, distributed adaptive faulttolerant routing, dcpthfirst search, looping effects, network delay tables, failure information.
Enumerating the NonIsomorphic Assembly Configurations of Modular Robotic Systems
 the International Journal of Robotics Research
"... A "modular" robotic system consists of joint and link modules that can be assembled in a variety of configurations to meet different or changing task requirements. However, due to typical symmetries in module design, different assembly configurations may lead to robotic structures which are kinemati ..."
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Cited by 26 (1 self)
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A "modular" robotic system consists of joint and link modules that can be assembled in a variety of configurations to meet different or changing task requirements. However, due to typical symmetries in module design, different assembly configurations may lead to robotic structures which are kinematically identical, or isomorphic. This paper considers how to enumerate the nonisomorphic assembly configurations of a modular robotic system. We introduce an Assembly Incidence Matrix (AIM) to represent a modular robot assembly configuration. Then we use symmetries of the module geometry and graph isomorphisms to define an equivalence relation on the AIMs. Equivalent AIMs represent isomorphic robot assembly configurations. Based on this equivalence relation, we propose an algorithm to generate nonisomorphic assembly configurations of an nlink treelike robot with different joint and link module types. Examples demonstrate that this method is a significant improvement over a brute force enu...
Net Partitions Yield Better Module Partitions
 IEEE 29th Design Automation Conference
, 1992
"... In this paper, we demonstrate that the "dual" intersection graph of the netlist strongly captures circuit properties relevant to partitioning. We apply this transformation within an existing testbed that uses an eigenvector computation to derive a linear ordering of nets, rather than modules [12]. W ..."
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Cited by 22 (9 self)
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In this paper, we demonstrate that the "dual" intersection graph of the netlist strongly captures circuit properties relevant to partitioning. We apply this transformation within an existing testbed that uses an eigenvector computation to derive a linear ordering of nets, rather than modules [12]. We then find a good module partition with respect to the ratio cut metric [23] via a sequence of incremental independentset computations in bipartite graphs derived from the net ordering. An efficient matchingbased algorithm called IGMatch was tested on MCNC benchmark circuits as well as additional industry examples. Results are very encouraging: the algorithm yields an average of 28.8% improvement over the results of [23]. The intersection graph representation also yields speedups over, e.g., the method of [11], due to additional sparsity in the netlist representation. 1 1 Preliminaries A standard model for VLSI layout associates a graph G = (V; E) with the circuit netlist; vertices in...