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41
Approximate distance oracles
 J. ACM
"... Let G = (V, E) be an undirected weighted graph with V  = n and E  = m. Let k ≥ 1 be an integer. We show that G = (V, E) can be preprocessed in O(kmn 1/k) expected time, constructing a data structure of size O(kn 1+1/k), such that any subsequent distance query can be answered, approximately, in ..."
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Cited by 207 (8 self)
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Let G = (V, E) be an undirected weighted graph with V  = n and E  = m. Let k ≥ 1 be an integer. We show that G = (V, E) can be preprocessed in O(kmn 1/k) expected time, constructing a data structure of size O(kn 1+1/k), such that any subsequent distance query can be answered, approximately, in O(k) time. The approximate distance returned is of stretch at most 2k − 1, i.e., the quotient obtained by dividing the estimated distance by the actual distance lies between 1 and 2k−1. A 1963 girth conjecture of Erdős, implies that Ω(n 1+1/k) space is needed in the worst case for any real stretch strictly smaller than 2k + 1. The space requirement of our algorithm is, therefore, essentially optimal. The most impressive feature of our data structure is its constant query time, hence the name “oracle”. Previously, data structures that used only O(n 1+1/k) space had a query time of Ω(n 1/k). Our algorithms are extremely simple and easy to implement efficiently. They also provide faster constructions of sparse spanners of weighted graphs, and improved tree covers and distance labelings of weighted or unweighted graphs. 1
All Pairs Shortest Paths using Bridging Sets and Rectangular Matrix Multiplication
 Journal of the ACM
, 2000
"... We present two new algorithms for solving the All Pairs Shortest Paths (APSP) problem for weighted directed graphs. Both algorithms use fast matrix multiplication algorithms. The first algorithm solves... ..."
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Cited by 60 (6 self)
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We present two new algorithms for solving the All Pairs Shortest Paths (APSP) problem for weighted directed graphs. Both algorithms use fast matrix multiplication algorithms. The first algorithm solves...
Exact and Approximate Distances in Graphs  a survey
 In ESA
, 2001
"... We survey recent and not so recent results related to the computation of exact and approximate distances, and corresponding shortest, or almost shortest, paths in graphs. We consider many different settings and models and try to identify some remaining open problems. ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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We survey recent and not so recent results related to the computation of exact and approximate distances, and corresponding shortest, or almost shortest, paths in graphs. We consider many different settings and models and try to identify some remaining open problems.
More algorithms for allpairs shortest paths in weighted graphs
 In Proceedings of 39th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2007
"... In the first part of the paper, we reexamine the allpairs shortest paths (APSP) problem and present a new algorithm with running time O(n 3 log 3 log n / log 2 n), which improves all known algorithms for general realweighted dense graphs. In the second part of the paper, we use fast matrix multipl ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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In the first part of the paper, we reexamine the allpairs shortest paths (APSP) problem and present a new algorithm with running time O(n 3 log 3 log n / log 2 n), which improves all known algorithms for general realweighted dense graphs. In the second part of the paper, we use fast matrix multiplication to obtain truly subcubic APSP algorithms for a large class of “geometrically weighted ” graphs, where the weight of an edge is a function of the coordinates of its vertices. For example, for graphs embedded in Euclidean space of a constant dimension d, we obtain a time bound near O(n 3−(3−ω)/(2d+4)), where ω < 2.376; in two dimensions, this is O(n 2.922). Our framework greatly extends the previously considered case of smallintegerweighted graphs, and incidentally also yields the first truly subcubic result (near O(n 3−(3−ω)/4) = O(n 2.844) time) for APSP in realvertexweighted graphs, as well as an improved result (near O(n (3+ω)/2) = O(n 2.688) time) for the allpairs lightest shortest path problem for smallintegerweighted graphs. 1
Fast Sparse Matrix Multiplication
, 2004
"... Let A and B two n n matrices over a ring R (e.g., the reals or the integers) each containing at most m nonzero elements. We present a new algorithm that multiplies A and B using O(m ) algebraic operations (i.e., multiplications, additions and subtractions) over R. The naive matrix multi ..."
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Cited by 38 (2 self)
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Let A and B two n n matrices over a ring R (e.g., the reals or the integers) each containing at most m nonzero elements. We present a new algorithm that multiplies A and B using O(m ) algebraic operations (i.e., multiplications, additions and subtractions) over R. The naive matrix multiplication algorithm, on the other hand, may need to perform #(mn) operations to accomplish the same task. For , the new algorithm performs an almost optimal number of only n operations. For m the new algorithm is also faster than the best known matrix multiplication algorithm for dense matrices which uses O(n ) algebraic operations. The new algorithm is obtained using a surprisingly straightforward combination of a simple combinatorial idea and existing fast rectangular matrix multiplication algorithms. We also obtain improved algorithms for the multiplication of more than two sparse matrices.
Fully Dynamic All Pairs Shortest Paths with Real Edge Weights
 In IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2001
"... We present the first fully dynamic algorithm for maintaining all pairs shortest paths in directed graphs with realvalued edge weights. Given a dynamic directed graph G such that each edge can assume at most S di#erent real values, we show how to support updates in O(n amortized time and que ..."
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Cited by 35 (10 self)
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We present the first fully dynamic algorithm for maintaining all pairs shortest paths in directed graphs with realvalued edge weights. Given a dynamic directed graph G such that each edge can assume at most S di#erent real values, we show how to support updates in O(n amortized time and queries in optimal worstcase time. No previous fully dynamic algorithm was known for this problem. In the special case where edge weights can only be increased, we give a randomized algorithm with onesided error which supports updates faster in O(S We also show how to obtain query/update tradeo#s for this problem, by introducing two new families of algorithms. Algorithms in the first family achieve an update bound of O(n/k), and improve over the best known update bounds for k in the . Algorithms in the second family achieve an update bound of ), and are competitive with the best known update bounds (first family included) for k in the range (n/S) # Work partially supported by the IST Programme of the EU under contract n. IST199914. 186 (ALCOMFT) and by CNR, the Italian National Research Council, under contract n. 01.00690.CT26. Portions of this work have been presented at the 42nd Annual Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS 2001) [8] and at the 29th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP'02) [9].
AllPairs SmallStretch Paths
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1997
"... Let G = (V; E) be a weighted undirected graph. A path between u; v 2 V is said to be of stretch t if its length is at most t times the distance between u and v in the graph. We consider the problem of finding smallstretch paths between all pairs of vertices in the graph G. It is easy to see that f ..."
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Cited by 35 (8 self)
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Let G = (V; E) be a weighted undirected graph. A path between u; v 2 V is said to be of stretch t if its length is at most t times the distance between u and v in the graph. We consider the problem of finding smallstretch paths between all pairs of vertices in the graph G. It is easy to see that finding paths of stretch less than 2 between all pairs of vertices in an undirected graph with n vertices is at least as hard as the Boolean multiplication of two n \Theta n matrices. We describe three algorithms for finding smallstretch paths between all pairs of vertices in a weighted graph with n vertices and m edges. The first algorithm, STRETCH 2 , runs in ~ O(n 3=2 m 1=2 ) time and finds stretch 2 paths. The second algorithm, STRETCH 7=3 , runs in ~ O(n 7=3 ) time and finds stretch 7/3 paths. Finally, the third algorithm, STRETCH 3 , runs in ~ O(n 2 ) and finds stretch 3 paths. Our algorithms are simpler, more efficient and more accurate than the previously best algorithms ...
Allpairs shortest paths with real weights in O(n³ / log n) time
 PROC. OF THE 9TH WADS, LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE 3608
, 2005
"... We describe an O(n³ / log n) ..."
A New Approach to AllPairs Shortest Paths on RealWeighted Graphs
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2003
"... We present a new allpairs shortest path algorithm that works with realweighted graphs in the traditional comparisonaddition model. It runs in O(mn+n time, improving on the longstanding bound of O(mn + n log n) derived from an implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm with Fibonacci heaps. Her ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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We present a new allpairs shortest path algorithm that works with realweighted graphs in the traditional comparisonaddition model. It runs in O(mn+n time, improving on the longstanding bound of O(mn + n log n) derived from an implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm with Fibonacci heaps. Here m and n are the number of edges and vertices, respectively.
Computing Shortest Paths with Comparisons and Additions
 SODA
, 2002
"... We present an undirected allpairs shortest paths (APSP) algorithm which runs on a pointer machine in time O(mnot(m, n)) while making O(ran log a(m, n)) comparisons and additions, where m and n are the number of edges and vertices, respectively, and a(ra, n) is Tarjan's inverseAckermann function. ..."
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Cited by 19 (7 self)
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We present an undirected allpairs shortest paths (APSP) algorithm which runs on a pointer machine in time O(mnot(m, n)) while making O(ran log a(m, n)) comparisons and additions, where m and n are the number of edges and vertices, respectively, and a(ra, n) is Tarjan's inverseAckermann function. This improves upon all previous comparison & additionbased APSP algorithms when the graph is sparse, i.e., when m = o(n log n). At the heart of our APSP algorithm is a new singlesource shortest paths algorithm which runs in time O(ma(m,n) + nloglogr) on a pointer machine, where r is the ratio of the maximumtominimum edge length. So long as r < 2 '~°(a) this algorithm is faster than any implementation of Dijkstra's classical algorithm in the comparisonaddition model. For directed graphs we give an O(ra + nlogr)time comparison & additionbased SSSP algorithm on a pointer machine. Similar algorithms assuming integer weights or the RAM model were given earlier.