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139
A Gröbner free alternative for polynomial system solving
 Journal of Complexity
, 2001
"... Given a system of polynomial equations and inequations with coefficients in the field of rational numbers, we show how to compute a geometric resolution of the set of common roots of the system over the field of complex numbers. A geometric resolution consists of a primitive element of the algebraic ..."
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Cited by 80 (16 self)
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Given a system of polynomial equations and inequations with coefficients in the field of rational numbers, we show how to compute a geometric resolution of the set of common roots of the system over the field of complex numbers. A geometric resolution consists of a primitive element of the algebraic extension defined by the set of roots, its minimal polynomial and the parametrizations of the coordinates. Such a representation of the solutions has a long history which goes back to Leopold Kronecker and has been revisited many times in computer algebra. We introduce a new generation of probabilistic algorithms where all the computations use only univariate or bivariate polynomials. We give a new codification of the set of solutions of a positive dimensional algebraic variety relying on a new global version of Newton’s iterator. Roughly speaking the complexity of our algorithm is polynomial in some kind of degree of the system, in its height, and linear in the complexity of evaluation
Subquadratictime factoring of polynomials over finite fields
 Math. Comp
, 1998
"... Abstract. New probabilistic algorithms are presented for factoring univariate polynomials over finite fields. The algorithms factor a polynomial of degree n over a finite field of constant cardinality in time O(n 1.815). Previous algorithms required time Θ(n 2+o(1)). The new algorithms rely on fast ..."
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Cited by 67 (11 self)
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Abstract. New probabilistic algorithms are presented for factoring univariate polynomials over finite fields. The algorithms factor a polynomial of degree n over a finite field of constant cardinality in time O(n 1.815). Previous algorithms required time Θ(n 2+o(1)). The new algorithms rely on fast matrix multiplication techniques. More generally, to factor a polynomial of degree n over the finite field Fq with q elements, the algorithms use O(n 1.815 log q) arithmetic operations in Fq. The new “baby step/giant step ” techniques used in our algorithms also yield new fast practical algorithms at superquadratic asymptotic running time, and subquadratictime methods for manipulating normal bases of finite fields. 1.
All Pairs Shortest Paths using Bridging Sets and Rectangular Matrix Multiplication
 Journal of the ACM
, 2000
"... We present two new algorithms for solving the All Pairs Shortest Paths (APSP) problem for weighted directed graphs. Both algorithms use fast matrix multiplication algorithms. The first algorithm solves... ..."
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Cited by 59 (6 self)
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We present two new algorithms for solving the All Pairs Shortest Paths (APSP) problem for weighted directed graphs. Both algorithms use fast matrix multiplication algorithms. The first algorithm solves...
Computing the equidimensional decomposition of an algebraic closed set by means of lifting fibers
 J. Complexity
, 2000
"... We present a new probabilistic method for solving systems of polynomial equations and inequations. Our algorithm computes the equidimensional decomposition of the Zariski closure of the solution set of such systems. Each equidimensional component is encoded by a generic fiber, that is a finite set o ..."
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Cited by 57 (2 self)
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We present a new probabilistic method for solving systems of polynomial equations and inequations. Our algorithm computes the equidimensional decomposition of the Zariski closure of the solution set of such systems. Each equidimensional component is encoded by a generic fiber, that is a finite set of points obtained from the intersection of the component with a generic transverse affine subspace. Our algorithm is incremental in the number of equations to be solved. Its complexity is mainly cubic in the maximum of the degrees of the solution sets of the intermediate systems counting multiplicities. Our method is designed for coefficient fields having characteristic zero or big enough with respect to the number of solutions. If the base field is the field of the rational numbers then the resolution is first performed modulo a random prime number after we have applied a random change of coordinates. Then we search for coordinates with small integers and lift the solutions up to the rational numbers. Our implementation is available within our package Kronecker from version 0.166, which is written in the Magma computer algebra system. 1
MultiLinear Formulas for Permanent and Determinant are of SuperPolynomial Size
 Proceeding of the 36th STOC
, 2003
"... An arithmetic formula is multilinear if the polynomial computed by each of its subformulas is multilinear. We prove that any multilinear arithmetic formula for the permanent or the determinant of an n n matrix is of size superpolynomial in n. ..."
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Cited by 45 (10 self)
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An arithmetic formula is multilinear if the polynomial computed by each of its subformulas is multilinear. We prove that any multilinear arithmetic formula for the permanent or the determinant of an n n matrix is of size superpolynomial in n.
Fast Sparse Matrix Multiplication
, 2004
"... Let A and B two n n matrices over a ring R (e.g., the reals or the integers) each containing at most m nonzero elements. We present a new algorithm that multiplies A and B using O(m ) algebraic operations (i.e., multiplications, additions and subtractions) over R. The naive matrix multi ..."
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Cited by 36 (2 self)
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Let A and B two n n matrices over a ring R (e.g., the reals or the integers) each containing at most m nonzero elements. We present a new algorithm that multiplies A and B using O(m ) algebraic operations (i.e., multiplications, additions and subtractions) over R. The naive matrix multiplication algorithm, on the other hand, may need to perform #(mn) operations to accomplish the same task. For , the new algorithm performs an almost optimal number of only n operations. For m the new algorithm is also faster than the best known matrix multiplication algorithm for dense matrices which uses O(n ) algebraic operations. The new algorithm is obtained using a surprisingly straightforward combination of a simple combinatorial idea and existing fast rectangular matrix multiplication algorithms. We also obtain improved algorithms for the multiplication of more than two sparse matrices.
NPcomplete problems and physical reality
 ACM SIGACT News Complexity Theory Column, March. ECCC
, 2005
"... Can NPcomplete problems be solved efficiently in the physical universe? I survey proposals including soap bubbles, protein folding, quantum computing, quantum advice, quantum adiabatic algorithms, quantummechanical nonlinearities, hidden variables, relativistic time dilation, analog computing, Mal ..."
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Cited by 32 (4 self)
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Can NPcomplete problems be solved efficiently in the physical universe? I survey proposals including soap bubbles, protein folding, quantum computing, quantum advice, quantum adiabatic algorithms, quantummechanical nonlinearities, hidden variables, relativistic time dilation, analog computing, MalamentHogarth spacetimes, quantum gravity, closed timelike curves, and “anthropic computing. ” The section on soap bubbles even includes some “experimental ” results. While I do not believe that any of the proposals will let us solve NPcomplete problems efficiently, I argue that by studying them, we can learn something not only about computation but also about physics. 1
Computing over the reals: Foundations for scientific computing
 Notices of the AMS
"... We give a detailed treatment of the “bitmodel ” of computability and complexity of real functions and subsets of R n, and argue that this is a good way to formalize many problems of scientific computation. In Section 1 we also discuss the alternative BlumShubSmale model. In the final section we d ..."
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Cited by 32 (3 self)
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We give a detailed treatment of the “bitmodel ” of computability and complexity of real functions and subsets of R n, and argue that this is a good way to formalize many problems of scientific computation. In Section 1 we also discuss the alternative BlumShubSmale model. In the final section we discuss the issue of whether physical systems could defeat the ChurchTuring Thesis. 1
Multilinear Formulas and Skepticism of Quantum Computing
 In Proc. ACM STOC
, 2004
"... Several researchers, including Leonid Levin, Gerard 't Hooft, and Stephen Wolfram, have argued that quantum mechanics will break down before the factoring of large numbers becomes possible. If this is true, then there should be a natural "Sure/Shor separator"that is, a set of quantum states tha ..."
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Cited by 30 (7 self)
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Several researchers, including Leonid Levin, Gerard 't Hooft, and Stephen Wolfram, have argued that quantum mechanics will break down before the factoring of large numbers becomes possible. If this is true, then there should be a natural "Sure/Shor separator"that is, a set of quantum states that can account for all experiments performed to date, but not for Shor's factoring algorithm. We propose as a candidate the set of states expressible by a polynomial number of additions and tensor products. Using a recent lower bound on multilinear formula size due to Raz, we then show that states arising in quantum errorcorrection require n## additions and tensor products even to approximate, which incidentally yields the first superpolynomial gap between general and multilinear formula size of functions. More broadly, we introduce a complexity classification of pure quantum states, and prove many basic facts about this classification. Our goal is to refine vague ideas about a breakdown of quantum mechanics into specific hypotheses that might be experimentally testable in the near future.