Results 1  10
of
466
Gradientbased learning applied to document recognition
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1998
"... Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify hi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 727 (58 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify highdimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of two dimensional (2D) shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Reallife document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation, recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN’s), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradientbased methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank check is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal checks. It is deployed commercially and reads several million checks per day.
Improved Boosting Algorithms Using Confidencerated Predictions
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1999
"... We describe several improvements to Freund and Schapire’s AdaBoost boosting algorithm, particularly in a setting in which hypotheses may assign confidences to each of their predictions. We give a simplified analysis of AdaBoost in this setting, and we show how this analysis can be used to find impr ..."
Abstract

Cited by 695 (26 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We describe several improvements to Freund and Schapire’s AdaBoost boosting algorithm, particularly in a setting in which hypotheses may assign confidences to each of their predictions. We give a simplified analysis of AdaBoost in this setting, and we show how this analysis can be used to find improved parameter settings as well as a refined criterion for training weak hypotheses. We give a specific method for assigning confidences to the predictions of decision trees, a method closely related to one used by Quinlan. This method also suggests a technique for growing decision trees which turns out to be identical to one proposed by Kearns and Mansour. We focus next on how to apply the new boosting algorithms to multiclass classification problems, particularly to the multilabel case in which each example may belong to more than one class. We give two boosting methods for this problem, plus a third method based on output coding. One of these leads to a new method for handling the singlelabel case which is simpler but as effective as techniques suggested by Freund and Schapire. Finally, we give some experimental results comparing a few of the algorithms discussed in this paper.
Multitask Learning
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1997
"... Multitask Learning is an approach to inductive transfer that improves generalization by using the domain information contained in the training signals of related tasks as an inductive bias. It does this by learning tasks in parallel while using a shared representation; what is learned for each task ..."
Abstract

Cited by 465 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Multitask Learning is an approach to inductive transfer that improves generalization by using the domain information contained in the training signals of related tasks as an inductive bias. It does this by learning tasks in parallel while using a shared representation; what is learned for each task can help other tasks be learned better. This paper reviews prior work on MTL, presents new evidence that MTL in backprop nets discovers task relatedness without the need of supervisory signals, and presents new results for MTL with knearest neighbor and kernel regression. In this paper we demonstrate multitask learning in three domains. We explain how multitask learning works, and show that there are many opportunities for multitask learning in real domains. We present an algorithm and results for multitask learning with casebased methods like knearest neighbor and kernel regression, and sketch an algorithm for multitask learning in decision trees. Because multitask learning works, can be applied to many different kinds of domains, and can be used with different learning algorithms, we conjecture there will be many opportunities for its use on realworld problems.
Ensemble Methods in Machine Learning
 MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEMS, LBCS1857
, 2000
"... Ensemble methods are learning algorithms that construct a set of classifiers and then classify new data points by taking a (weighted) vote of their predictions. The original ensemble method is Bayesian averaging, but more recent algorithms include errorcorrecting output coding, Bagging, and boostin ..."
Abstract

Cited by 425 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Ensemble methods are learning algorithms that construct a set of classifiers and then classify new data points by taking a (weighted) vote of their predictions. The original ensemble method is Bayesian averaging, but more recent algorithms include errorcorrecting output coding, Bagging, and boosting. This paper reviews these methods and explains why ensembles can often perform better than any single classifier. Some previous studies comparing ensemble methods are reviewed, and some new experiments are presented to uncover the reasons that Adaboost does not overfit rapidly.
Reducing Multiclass to Binary: A Unifying Approach for Margin Classifiers
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2000
"... We present a unifying framework for studying the solution of multiclass categorization problems by reducing them to multiple binary problems that are then solved using a marginbased binary learning algorithm. The proposed framework unifies some of the most popular approaches in which each class ..."
Abstract

Cited by 419 (20 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a unifying framework for studying the solution of multiclass categorization problems by reducing them to multiple binary problems that are then solved using a marginbased binary learning algorithm. The proposed framework unifies some of the most popular approaches in which each class is compared against all others, or in which all pairs of classes are compared to each other, or in which output codes with errorcorrecting properties are used. We propose a general method for combining the classifiers generated on the binary problems, and we prove a general empirical multiclass loss bound given the empirical loss of the individual binary learning algorithms. The scheme and the corresponding bounds apply to many popular classification learning algorithms including supportvector machines, AdaBoost, regression, logistic regression and decisiontree algorithms. We also give a multiclass generalization error analysis for general output codes with AdaBoost as the binary learner. Experimental results with SVM and AdaBoost show that our scheme provides a viable alternative to the most commonly used multiclass algorithms.
Distance metric learning for large margin nearest neighbor classification
 In NIPS
, 2006
"... We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for knearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the knearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven ..."
Abstract

Cited by 325 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for knearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the knearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven data sets of varying size and difficulty, we find that metrics trained in this way lead to significant improvements in kNN classification—for example, achieving a test error rate of 1.3 % on the MNIST handwritten digits. As in support vector machines (SVMs), the learning problem reduces to a convex optimization based on the hinge loss. Unlike learning in SVMs, however, our framework requires no modification or extension for problems in multiway (as opposed to binary) classification. 1
Bagging, Boosting, and C4.5
 In Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1996
"... Breiman's bagging and Freund and Schapire's boosting are recent methods for improving the predictive power of classifier learning systems. Both form a set of classifiers that are combined by voting, bagging by generating replicated bootstrap samples of the data, and boosting by adjusting the weight ..."
Abstract

Cited by 271 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Breiman's bagging and Freund and Schapire's boosting are recent methods for improving the predictive power of classifier learning systems. Both form a set of classifiers that are combined by voting, bagging by generating replicated bootstrap samples of the data, and boosting by adjusting the weights of training instances. This paper reports results of applying both techniques to a system that learns decision trees and testing on a representative collection of datasets. While both approaches substantially improve predictive accuracy, boosting shows the greater benefit. On the other hand, boosting also produces severe degradation on some datasets. A small change to the way that boosting combines the votes of learned classifiers reduces this downside and also leads to slightly better results on most of the datasets considered. Introduction Designers of empirical machine learning systems are concerned with such issues as the computational cost of the learning method and the accuracy and ...
Ultraconservative Online Algorithms for Multiclass Problems
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2001
"... In this paper we study online classification algorithms for multiclass problems in the mistake bound model. The hypotheses we use maintain one prototype vector per class. Given an input instance, a multiclass hypothesis computes a similarityscore between each prototype and the input instance and th ..."
Abstract

Cited by 249 (23 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In this paper we study online classification algorithms for multiclass problems in the mistake bound model. The hypotheses we use maintain one prototype vector per class. Given an input instance, a multiclass hypothesis computes a similarityscore between each prototype and the input instance and then sets the predicted label to be the index of the prototype achieving the highest similarity. To design and analyze the learning algorithms in this paper we introduce the notion of ultraconservativeness. Ultraconservative algorithms are algorithms that update only the prototypes attaining similarityscores which are higher than the score of the correct label's prototype. We start by describing a family of additive ultraconservative algorithms where each algorithm in the family updates its prototypes by finding a feasible solution for a set of linear constraints that depend on the instantaneous similarityscores. We then discuss a specific online algorithm that seeks a set of prototypes which have a small norm. The resulting algorithm, which we term MIRA (for Margin Infused Relaxed Algorithm) is ultraconservative as well. We derive mistake bounds for all the algorithms and provide further analysis of MIRA using a generalized notion of the margin for multiclass problems.
Sharing Features: Efficient Boosting Procedures for Multiclass Object Detection
 IN CVPR
, 2004
"... We consider the problem of detecting a large number of different object classes in cluttered scenes. Traditional approaches require applying a battery of different classifiers to the image, which can be slow and require much training data. We present a multiclass boosting procedure (joint boosting) ..."
Abstract

Cited by 238 (16 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We consider the problem of detecting a large number of different object classes in cluttered scenes. Traditional approaches require applying a battery of different classifiers to the image, which can be slow and require much training data. We present a multiclass boosting procedure (joint boosting) that reduces both the computational and sample complexity, by finding common features that can be shared across the classes. The detectors for each class are trained jointly, rather than independently. For a given performance level, the total number of features required is observed to scale approximately logarithmically with the number of classes. In addition, we find that the features selected by independently trained classifiers are often specific to the class, whereas the features selected by the jointly trained classifiers are more generic features, such as lines and edges.
In defense of onevsall classification
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2004
"... Editor: John ShaweTaylor We consider the problem of multiclass classification. Our main thesis is that a simple “onevsall ” scheme is as accurate as any other approach, assuming that the underlying binary classifiers are welltuned regularized classifiers such as support vector machines. This the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 202 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Editor: John ShaweTaylor We consider the problem of multiclass classification. Our main thesis is that a simple “onevsall ” scheme is as accurate as any other approach, assuming that the underlying binary classifiers are welltuned regularized classifiers such as support vector machines. This thesis is interesting in that it disagrees with a large body of recent published work on multiclass classification. We support our position by means of a critical review of the existing literature, a substantial collection of carefully controlled experimental work, and theoretical arguments.