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The Dual of Substitution is Redecoration
, 2002
"... It is well known that type constructors of incomplete trees (trees with variables) carry the structure of a monad with substitution as the extension operation. Less known are the facts that the same is true of type constructors of incomplete cotrees (=nonwellfounded trees) and that the correspondin ..."
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It is well known that type constructors of incomplete trees (trees with variables) carry the structure of a monad with substitution as the extension operation. Less known are the facts that the same is true of type constructors of incomplete cotrees (=nonwellfounded trees) and that the corresponding monads exhibit a special structure. We wish to draw attention to the dual facts which are as meaningful for functional programming: type constructors of decorated cotrees carry the structure of a comonad with redecoration as the coextension operation, and so doeven more interestinglytype constructors of decorated trees.
Deriving Tidy Drawings of Trees
, 1995
"... The treedrawing problem is to produce a `tidy' mapping of elements of a tree to points in the plane. In this paper, we derive an efficient algorithm for producing tidy drawings of trees. The specification, the starting point for the derivations, consists of a collection of intuitively appealing cri ..."
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The treedrawing problem is to produce a `tidy' mapping of elements of a tree to points in the plane. In this paper, we derive an efficient algorithm for producing tidy drawings of trees. The specification, the starting point for the derivations, consists of a collection of intuitively appealing criteria satisfied by tidy drawings. The derivation shows constructively that these criteria completely determine the drawing. Indeed, the criteria completely determine a simple but inefficient algorithm for drawing a tree, which can be transformed into an efficient algorithm using just standard techniques and a small number of inventive steps. The algorithm consists of an upwards accumulation followed by a downwards accumulation on the tree, and is further evidence of the utility of these two higherorder tree operations.
An InitialAlgebra Approach to Directed Acyclic Graphs
, 1995
"... . The initialalgebra approach to modelling datatypes consists of giving constructors for building larger objects of that type from smaller ones, and laws identifying di#erentways of constructing the same object. The recursive decomposition of objects of the datatype leads directly to a recursiv ..."
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. The initialalgebra approach to modelling datatypes consists of giving constructors for building larger objects of that type from smaller ones, and laws identifying di#erentways of constructing the same object. The recursive decomposition of objects of the datatype leads directly to a recursive pattern of computation on those objects, whichisvery helpful for both functional and parallel programming. We showhow to model a particular kind of directed acyclic graph using this initialalgebra approach. Keywords. Graphs, data types, catamorphisms, initial algebras, BirdMeertens Formalism, program derivation. 1 Introduction It is now widely recognized that the traditional adhoc approaches to program construction do not yield reliable software; a more systematic and formal approach is required. One such approach consists of program veri#cationproving after the fact that a given program satis#es its formal speci#cation. This approach turns out to be di#cult to implement, not lea...
A Calculational Approach to Strong Datatypes
 Department of Informatics, University of Oslo
, 1997
"... This paper describes calculational properties of fold, a recursive functional on inductive types that extends the standard catamorphism [MFP91] to global parameters. As described by Cockett and Spencer [CS91] fold is definable for those inductive types that are strong in the sense of being given by ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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This paper describes calculational properties of fold, a recursive functional on inductive types that extends the standard catamorphism [MFP91] to global parameters. As described by Cockett and Spencer [CS91] fold is definable for those inductive types that are strong in the sense of being given by an algebra that happens to be initial with parameters. The laws for fold are presented in two groups. The first one corresponds to standard laws for catamorphisms now adapted to folds when these are regarded as catamorphisms in a category of socalled Xactions (for X an object of parameters). The second group contains laws that describe the combination of folds and the interaction between folds and catamorphisms. 1 Introduction In programming semantics, a recursive type is understood as a solution of a recursive type equation. Least fixpoints of covariant recursive type equations correspond to the socalled inductive types which contain only finite elements, like natural numbers, lists o...
From Transformations to Methodology in Parallel Program Development: A Case Study
 Microprocessing and Microprogramming
, 1996
"... The BirdMeertens formalism (BMF) of higherorder functions over lists is a mathematical framework supporting formal derivation of algorithms from functional specifications. This paper reports results of a case study on the systematic use of BMF in the process of parallel program development. We dev ..."
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The BirdMeertens formalism (BMF) of higherorder functions over lists is a mathematical framework supporting formal derivation of algorithms from functional specifications. This paper reports results of a case study on the systematic use of BMF in the process of parallel program development. We develop a parallel program for polynomial multiplication, starting with a straightforward mathematical specification and arriving at the target processor topology together with a program for each processor of it. The development process is based on formal transformations; design decisions concerning data partitioning, processor interconnections, etc. are governed by formal type analysis and performance estimation rather than made ad hoc. The parallel target implementation is parameterized for an arbitrary number of processors; for the particular number, the target program is both time and costoptimal. We compare our results with systolic solutions to polynomial multiplication.
The Static Parallelization of Loops and Recursions
 In Proc. 11th Int. Symp. on High Performance Computing Systems (HPCS'97
, 1997
"... We demonstrate approaches to the static parallelization of loops and recursions on the example of the polynomial product. Phrased as a loop nest, the polynomial product can be parallelized automatically by applying a spacetime mapping technique based on linear algebra and linear programming. One ca ..."
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We demonstrate approaches to the static parallelization of loops and recursions on the example of the polynomial product. Phrased as a loop nest, the polynomial product can be parallelized automatically by applying a spacetime mapping technique based on linear algebra and linear programming. One can choose a parallel program that is optimal with respect to some objective function like the number of execution steps, processors, channels, etc. However, at best, linear execution time complexity can be attained. Through phrasing the polynomial product as a divideandconquer recursion, one can obtain a parallel program with sublinear execution time. In this case, the target program is not derived by an automatic search but given as a program skeleton, which can be deduced by a sequence of equational program transformations. We discuss the use of such skeletons, compare and assess the models in which loops and divideandconquer recursions are parallelized and comment on the performance pr...
Towards polytypic parallel programming
, 1998
"... Data parallelism is currently one of the most successful models for programming massively parallel computers. The central idea is to evaluate a uniform collection of data in parallel by simultaneously manipulating each data element in the collection. Despite many of its promising features, the curre ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Data parallelism is currently one of the most successful models for programming massively parallel computers. The central idea is to evaluate a uniform collection of data in parallel by simultaneously manipulating each data element in the collection. Despite many of its promising features, the current approach suffers from two problems. First, the main parallel data structures that most data parallel languages currently support are restricted to simple collection data types like lists, arrays or similar structures. But other useful data structures like trees have not been well addressed. Second, parallel programming relies on a set of parallel primitives that capture parallel skeletons of interest. However, these primitives are not well structured, and efficient parallel programming with these primitives is difficult. In this paper, we propose a polytypic framework for developing efficient parallel programs on most data structures. We showhow a set of polytypic parallel primitives can be formally defined for manipulating most data structures, how these primitives can be successfully structured into a uniform recursive definition, and how an efficient combination of primitives can be derived from a naive specification program. Our framework should be significant not only in development of new parallel algorithms, but also in construction of parallelizing compilers.
A Calculational Framework for Parallelization of Sequential Programs
 In International Symposium on Information Systems and Technologies for Network Society
, 1997
"... this paper, we propose ..."
Comonadic functional attribute evaluation
 Trends in Functional Programming
"... We have previously demonstrated that dataflow computation is comonadic. Here we argue that attribute evaluation has a lot in common with dataflow computation and admits a similar analysis. We claim that this yields a new, modular way to organize both attribute evaluation programs written directly in ..."
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We have previously demonstrated that dataflow computation is comonadic. Here we argue that attribute evaluation has a lot in common with dataflow computation and admits a similar analysis. We claim that this yields a new, modular way to organize both attribute evaluation programs written directly in a functional language as well as attribute grammar processors.
List Homomorphism with Accumulation
 In Proceedings of Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD
, 2003
"... This paper introduces accumulation into list homomorphisms for systematic development of both efficient and correct parallel programs. New parallelizable recursive pattern called is given, and transformations from sequential patterns in the form into (H)homomorphism are shown. We illustrate ..."
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This paper introduces accumulation into list homomorphisms for systematic development of both efficient and correct parallel programs. New parallelizable recursive pattern called is given, and transformations from sequential patterns in the form into (H)homomorphism are shown. We illustrate the power of our formalization by developing a novel and general parallel program for a class of interesting and challenging problems, known as maximum marking problems. 1.