Results 1  10
of
266
Constructing Free Energy Approximations and Generalized Belief Propagation Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2005
"... Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems t ..."
Abstract

Cited by 412 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems that is exact when the factor graph is a tree, but only approximate when the factor graph has cycles. We show that BP fixed points correspond to the stationary points of the Bethe approximation of the free energy for a factor graph. We explain how to obtain regionbased free energy approximations that improve the Bethe approximation, and corresponding generalized belief propagation (GBP) algorithms. We emphasize the conditions a free energy approximation must satisfy in order to be a “valid ” or “maxentnormal ” approximation. We describe the relationship between four different methods that can be used to generate valid approximations: the “Bethe method, ” the “junction graph method, ” the “cluster variation method, ” and the “region graph method.” Finally, we explain how to tell whether a regionbased approximation, and its corresponding GBP algorithm, is likely to be accurate, and describe empirical results showing that GBP can significantly outperform BP.
The Bayes Net Toolbox for MATLAB
 Computing Science and Statistics
, 2001
"... The Bayes Net Toolbox (BNT) is an opensource Matlab package for directed graphical models. BNT supports many kinds of nodes (probability distributions), exact and approximate inference, parameter and structure learning, and static and dynamic models. BNT is widely used in teaching and research: the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 175 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The Bayes Net Toolbox (BNT) is an opensource Matlab package for directed graphical models. BNT supports many kinds of nodes (probability distributions), exact and approximate inference, parameter and structure learning, and static and dynamic models. BNT is widely used in teaching and research: the web page has received over 28,000 hits since May 2000. In this paper, we discuss a broad spectrum of issues related to graphical models (directed and undirected), and describe, at a highlevel, how BNT was designed to cope with them all. We also compare BNT to other software packages for graphical models, and to the nascent OpenBayes effort.
Sparse online gaussian processes
 Neural Computation
"... Minor corrections included a a The authors acknowledge reader feedbacks We develop an approach for sparse representations of Gaussian Process (GP) models (which are Bayesian types of kernel machines) in order to overcome their limitations for large data sets. The method is based on a combination of ..."
Abstract

Cited by 117 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Minor corrections included a a The authors acknowledge reader feedbacks We develop an approach for sparse representations of Gaussian Process (GP) models (which are Bayesian types of kernel machines) in order to overcome their limitations for large data sets. The method is based on a combination of a Bayesian online algorithm together with a sequential construction of a relevant subsample of the data which fully specifies the prediction of the GP model. By using an appealing parametrisation and projection techniques that use the RKHS norm, recursions for the effective parameters and a sparse Gaussian approximation of the posterior process are obtained. This allows both for a propagation of predictions as well as of Bayesian error measures. The significance and robustness of our approach is demonstrated on a variety of experiments. Sparse Online Gaussian Processes 2
Collective classification in network data
, 2008
"... Numerous realworld applications produce networked data such as web data (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks) and communication networks (people connected via communication links). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification te ..."
Abstract

Cited by 98 (27 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Numerous realworld applications produce networked data such as web data (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks) and communication networks (people connected via communication links). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification techniques to classify nodes in such data. In this report, we attempt to provide a brief introduction to this area of research and how it has progressed during the past decade. We introduce four of the most widely used inference algorithms for classifying networked data and empirically compare them on both synthetic and realworld data.
Variational message passing
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2005
"... This paper presents Variational Message Passing (VMP), a general purpose algorithm for applying variational inference to a Bayesian Network. Like belief propagation, Variational Message Passing proceeds by passing messages between nodes in the graph and updating posterior beliefs using local operati ..."
Abstract

Cited by 81 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper presents Variational Message Passing (VMP), a general purpose algorithm for applying variational inference to a Bayesian Network. Like belief propagation, Variational Message Passing proceeds by passing messages between nodes in the graph and updating posterior beliefs using local operations at each node. Each such update increases a lower bound on the log evidence (unless already at a local maximum). In contrast to belief propagation, VMP can be applied to a very general class of conjugateexponential models because it uses a factorised variational approximation. Furthermore, by introducing additional variational parameters, VMP can be applied to models containing nonconjugate distributions. The VMP framework also allows the lower bound to be evaluated, and this can be used both for model comparison and for detection of convergence. Variational Message Passing has been implemented in the form of a general purpose inference engine called VIBES (‘Variational Inference for BayEsian networkS’) which allows models to be specified graphically and then solved variationally without recourse to coding.
Residual belief propagation: Informed scheduling for asynchronous message passing
 in Proceedings of the Twentysecond Conference on Uncertainty in AI (UAI
, 2006
"... Inference for probabilistic graphical models is still very much a practical challenge in large domains. The commonly used and effective belief propagation (BP) algorithm and its generalizations often do not converge when applied to hard, reallife inference tasks. While it is widely recognized that ..."
Abstract

Cited by 81 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Inference for probabilistic graphical models is still very much a practical challenge in large domains. The commonly used and effective belief propagation (BP) algorithm and its generalizations often do not converge when applied to hard, reallife inference tasks. While it is widely recognized that the scheduling of messages in these algorithms may have significant consequences, this issue remains largely unexplored. In this work, we address the question of how to schedule messages for asynchronous propagation so that a fixed point is reached faster and more often. We first show that any reasonable asynchronous BP converges to a unique fixed point under conditions similar to those that guarantee convergence of synchronous BP. In addition, we show that the convergence rate of a simple roundrobin schedule is at least as good as that of synchronous propagation. We then propose residual belief propagation (RBP), a novel, easytoimplement, asynchronous propagation algorithm that schedules messages in an informed way, that pushes down a bound on the distance from the fixed point. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of RBP over stateoftheart methods for a variety of challenging synthetic and reallife problems: RBP converges significantly more often than other methods; and it significantly reduces running time until convergence, even when other methods converge. 1
Implementing approximate Bayesian inference for latent Gaussian models using integrated nested Laplace approximations: A manual for the inlaprogram
, 2008
"... Structured additive regression models are perhaps the most commonly used class of models in statistical applications. It includes, among others, (generalised) linear models, (generalised) additive models, smoothingspline models, statespace models, semiparametric regression, spatial and spatiotemp ..."
Abstract

Cited by 78 (16 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Structured additive regression models are perhaps the most commonly used class of models in statistical applications. It includes, among others, (generalised) linear models, (generalised) additive models, smoothingspline models, statespace models, semiparametric regression, spatial and spatiotemporal models, logGaussian Coxprocesses, geostatistical and geoadditive models. In this paper we consider approximate Bayesian inference in a popular subset of structured additive regression models, latent Gaussian models, where the latent field is Gaussian, controlled by a few hyperparameters and with nonGaussian response variables. The posterior marginals are not available in closed form due to the nonGaussian response variables. For such models, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods can be implemented, but they are not without problems, both in terms of convergence and computational time. In some practical applications, the extent of these problems is such that Markov chain Monte Carlo is simply not an appropriate tool for routine analysis. We show that, by using an integrated nested Laplace approximation and its simplified version, we can directly compute very accurate approximations to the posterior marginals. The main benefit of these approximations
A Latent Dirichlet Model for Unsupervised Entity Resolution
 SIAM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DATA MINING
, 2006
"... Entity resolution has received considerable attention in recent years. Given many references to underlying entities, the goal is to predict which references correspond to the same entity. We show how to extend the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model for this task and propose a probabilistic model for ..."
Abstract

Cited by 73 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Entity resolution has received considerable attention in recent years. Given many references to underlying entities, the goal is to predict which references correspond to the same entity. We show how to extend the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model for this task and propose a probabilistic model for collective entity resolution for relational domains where references are connected to each other. Our approach differs from other recently proposed entity resolution approaches in that it is a) generative, b) does not make pairwise decisions and c) captures relations between entities through a hidden group variable. We propose a novel sampling algorithm for collective entity resolution which is unsupervised and also takes entity relations into account. Additionally, we do not assume the domain of entities to be known and show how to infer the number of entities from the data. We demonstrate the utility and practicality of our relational entity resolution approach for author resolution in two realworld bibliographic datasets. In addition, we present preliminary results on characterizing conditions under which relational information is useful.
Online Bayes Point Machines
"... We present a new and simple algorithm for learning large margin classi ers that works in a truly online manner. The algorithm generates a linear classi er by averaging the weights associated with several perceptronlike algorithms run in parallel in order to approximate the Bayes point. A rand ..."
Abstract

Cited by 68 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a new and simple algorithm for learning large margin classi ers that works in a truly online manner. The algorithm generates a linear classi er by averaging the weights associated with several perceptronlike algorithms run in parallel in order to approximate the Bayes point. A random subsample of the incoming data stream is used to ensure diversity in the perceptron solutions. We experimentally study the algorithm's performance on online and batch learning settings.
Loopy belief propagation: Convergence and effects of message errors
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2005
"... Belief propagation (BP) is an increasingly popular method of performing approximate inference on arbitrary graphical models. At times, even further approximations are required, whether due to quantization of the messages or model parameters, from other simplified message or model representations, or ..."
Abstract

Cited by 61 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Belief propagation (BP) is an increasingly popular method of performing approximate inference on arbitrary graphical models. At times, even further approximations are required, whether due to quantization of the messages or model parameters, from other simplified message or model representations, or from stochastic approximation methods. The introduction of such errors into the BP message computations has the potential to affect the solution obtained adversely. We analyze the effect resulting from message approximation under two particular measures of error, and show bounds on the accumulation of errors in the system. This analysis leads to convergence conditions for traditional BP message passing, and both strict bounds and estimates of the resulting error in systems of approximate BP message passing. 1