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A HighThroughput Path Metric for MultiHop Wireless Routing
, 2003
"... This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds highthroughput paths on multihop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The E ..."
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Cited by 1080 (5 self)
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This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds highthroughput paths on multihop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. In contrast, the minimum hopcount metric chooses arbitrarily among the different paths of the same minimum length, regardless of the often large differences in throughput among those paths, and ignoring the possibility that a longer path might offer higher throughput. This
Highthroughput routing for multihop wireless networks
 PH.D. THESIS, MIT
, 2004
"... The expected transmission count (ETX) metric is a new route metric for finding highthroughput paths in multihop wireless networks. The ETX of a path is the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet along that path. For pract ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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The expected transmission count (ETX) metric is a new route metric for finding highthroughput paths in multihop wireless networks. The ETX of a path is the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet along that path. For practical networks, paths with the minimum ETX have the highest throughput. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. Busy networks that use the ETX route metric will also maximize total network throughput. We describe the design and implementation of ETX as a metric for the DSDV and DSR routing protocols, as well as modifications to DSDV and DSR which make them work well with ETX. Measurements taken from a 29node 802.11b testbed show that using ETX improves performance significantly over the widelyused minimum hopcount metric. For long paths the throughput increase is often a factor of two or more, suggesting that ETX will become more useful as networks
A HighThroughput Path Metric for MultiHop Wireless Routing
"... This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds highthroughput paths on multihop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The E ..."
Abstract

Cited by 5 (0 self)
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(Show Context)
This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds highthroughput paths on multihop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. In contrast, the minimum hopcount metric chooses arbitrarily among the different paths of the same minimum length, regardless of the often large differences in throughput among those paths, and ignoring the possibility that a longer path might offer higher throughput. This paper describes the design and implementation of ETX as a metric for the DSDV and DSR routing protocols, as well as modifications to DSDV and DSR which allow them to use ETX. Measurements taken from a 29node 802.11b testbed demonstrate the poor performance of minimum hopcount, illustrate the causes of that poor performance, and confirm that ETX improves performance. For long paths the throughput improvement is often a factor of two or more, suggesting that ETX will become more useful as networks grow larger and paths become longer.
Revisiting Minimum Cost Reliable Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks (Extended Abstract)
, 2007
"... We revisit the problem of computing the path with the minimum cost in terms of the expected number of link layer retransmissions in wireless mesh networks. Unlike previous efforts (such as the popular ETX) we account for the fact that link layer protocols (such as the IEEE 802.11 MAC) incorporate a ..."
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We revisit the problem of computing the path with the minimum cost in terms of the expected number of link layer retransmissions in wireless mesh networks. Unlike previous efforts (such as the popular ETX) we account for the fact that link layer protocols (such as the IEEE 802.11 MAC) incorporate a nonzero but finite number of retransmission attempts per packet. A key observation that motivates this work is that the performance of a path depends not only on the number of links on the path and their qualities, but also on the relative positions of the links on the path. In particular, the closer a lossy link to the destination, the higher is its impact on the performance of that path. We design a new path metric that captures all of the above factors and we call this metric ETOP. In this paper, we provide a synopsis of the analytical computation of ETOP. We also implement a routing strategy based on ETOP on a 25node experimental testbed and provide sample results to showcase the performance with ETOP.