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36
Improved simulation of stabilizer circuits
 Phys. Rev. Lett
"... The GottesmanKnill theorem says that a stabilizer circuit—that is, a quantum circuit consisting solely of CNOT, Hadamard, and phase gates—can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. This paper improves that theorem in several directions. • By removing the need for Gaussian elimination, we ..."
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Cited by 44 (6 self)
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The GottesmanKnill theorem says that a stabilizer circuit—that is, a quantum circuit consisting solely of CNOT, Hadamard, and phase gates—can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. This paper improves that theorem in several directions. • By removing the need for Gaussian elimination, we make the simulation algorithm much faster at the cost of a factor2 increase in the number of bits needed to represent a state. We have implemented the improved algorithm in a freelyavailable program called CHP (CNOTHadamardPhase), which can handle thousands of qubits easily. • We show that the problem of simulating stabilizer circuits is complete for the classical complexity class ⊕L, which means that stabilizer circuits are probably not even universal for classical computation. • We give efficient algorithms for computing the inner product between two stabilizer states, putting any nqubit stabilizer circuit into a “canonical form ” that requires at most O ( n 2 /log n) gates, and other useful tasks. • We extend our simulation algorithm to circuits acting on mixed states, circuits containing a limited number of nonstabilizer gates, and circuits acting on general tensorproduct initial states but containing only a limited number of measurements. 1
Holographic Algorithms: From Art to Science
 Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity Report
, 2007
"... We develop the theory of holographic algorithms. We give characterizations of algebraic varieties of realizable symmetric generators and recognizers on the basis manifold, and a polynomial time decision algorithm for the simultaneous realizability problem. Using the general machinery we are able to ..."
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Cited by 19 (10 self)
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We develop the theory of holographic algorithms. We give characterizations of algebraic varieties of realizable symmetric generators and recognizers on the basis manifold, and a polynomial time decision algorithm for the simultaneous realizability problem. Using the general machinery we are able to give unexpected holographic algorithms for some counting problems, modulo certain Mersenne type integers. These counting problems are #Pcomplete without the moduli. Going beyond symmetric signatures, we define dadmissibility and drealizability for general signatures, and give a characterization of 2admissibility and some general constructions of admissible and realizable families. 1
Simulating quantum computation by contracting tensor networks
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2005
"... The treewidth of a graph is a useful combinatorial measure of how close the graph is to a tree. We prove that a quantum circuit with T gates whose underlying graph has treewidth d can be simulated deterministically in T O(1) exp[O(d)] time, which, in particular, is polynomial in T if d = O(logT). Am ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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The treewidth of a graph is a useful combinatorial measure of how close the graph is to a tree. We prove that a quantum circuit with T gates whose underlying graph has treewidth d can be simulated deterministically in T O(1) exp[O(d)] time, which, in particular, is polynomial in T if d = O(logT). Among many implications, we show efficient simulations for quantum formulas, defined and studied by Yao (Proceedings of the 34th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, 352–361, 1993), and for logdepth circuits whose gates apply to nearby qubits only, a natural constraint satisfied by most physical implementations. We also show that oneway quantum computation of Raussendorf and Briegel (Physical Review Letters, 86:5188– 5191, 2001), a universal quantum computation scheme with promising physical implementations, can be efficiently simulated by a randomized algorithm if its quantum resource is derived from a smalltreewidth graph.
On the Theory of Matchgate Computations
 Submitted. Also available at Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity Report
, 2007
"... Valiant has proposed a new theory of algorithmic computation based on perfect matchings and the Pfaffian. We study the properties of matchgates—the basic building blocks in this new theory. We give a set of algebraic identities which completely characterize these objects in terms of the GrassmannPl ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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Valiant has proposed a new theory of algorithmic computation based on perfect matchings and the Pfaffian. We study the properties of matchgates—the basic building blocks in this new theory. We give a set of algebraic identities which completely characterize these objects in terms of the GrassmannPlücker identities. In the important case of 4 by 4 matchgate matrices, which was used in Valiant’s classical simulation of a fragment of quantum computations, we further realize a group action on the character matrix of a matchgate, and relate this information to its compound matrix. Then we use Jacobi’s theorem to prove that in this case the invertible matchgate matrices form a multiplicative group. These results are useful in establishing limitations on the ultimate capabilities of Valiant’s theory of matchgate computations and his closely related theory of Holographic Algorithms. 1
The Computational Complexity of Linear Optics
 in Proceedings of STOC 2011
"... We give new evidence that quantum computers—moreover, rudimentary quantumcomputers built entirely out of linearoptical elements—cannotbeefficientlysimulatedbyclassical computers. In particular, we define a model of computation in which identical photons are generated, sent through a linearoptical n ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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We give new evidence that quantum computers—moreover, rudimentary quantumcomputers built entirely out of linearoptical elements—cannotbeefficientlysimulatedbyclassical computers. In particular, we define a model of computation in which identical photons are generated, sent through a linearoptical network, then nonadaptively measured to count the number of photons in each mode. This model is not known or believed to be universal for quantum computation, and indeed, we discuss the prospects for realizing the model using current technology. On the other hand, we prove that the model is able to solve sampling problems and search problems that are classically intractable under plausible assumptions. Our first result says that, if there exists a polynomialtime classical algorithm that samples from the same probability distribution as a linearoptical network, then P #P = BPP NP, and hence the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level. Unfortunately, this result assumes an extremely accurate simulation. Our main result suggests that even an approximate or noisy classical simulation would already imply a collapse of the polynomial hierarchy. For this, we need two unproven conjectures: the PermanentofGaussians Conjecture, which says that it is #Phard to approximate the permanent of a matrixAofindependentN (0,1)Gaussianentries, withhigh probability over A; and the Permanent AntiConcentration Conjecture, which says that Per(A)  ≥ √ n!/poly(n) with high probability over A. We present evidence for these conjectures, both of which seem interesting even apart from our application. For the 96page full version, see www.scottaaronson.com/papers/optics.pdf
Bases Collapse in Holographic Algorithms
 Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity Report
, 2007
"... Holographic algorithms are a novel approach to design polynomial time computations using linear superpositions. Most holographic algorithms are designed with basis vectors of dimension 2. Recently Valiant showed that a basis of dimension 4 can be used to solve in P an interesting (restrictive SAT) c ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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Holographic algorithms are a novel approach to design polynomial time computations using linear superpositions. Most holographic algorithms are designed with basis vectors of dimension 2. Recently Valiant showed that a basis of dimension 4 can be used to solve in P an interesting (restrictive SAT) counting problem mod 7. This problem without modulo 7 is #Pcomplete, and counting mod 2 is NPhard. We give a general collapse theorem for bases of dimension 4 to dimension 2 in the holographic algorithms framework. We also define an extension of holographic algorithms to allow more general support vectors. Finally we give a Basis Folding Theorem showing that in a natural setting the support vectors can be simulated by bases of dimension 2. 1
The Complexity of Symmetric Boolean Parity Holant Problems (Extended Abstract)
"... Abstract. For certain subclasses of NP, ⊕P or #P characterized by local constraints, it is known that if there exist any problems that are not polynomial time computable within that subclass, then those problems are NP, ⊕P or #Pcomplete. Such dichotomy results have been proved for characterizatio ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Abstract. For certain subclasses of NP, ⊕P or #P characterized by local constraints, it is known that if there exist any problems that are not polynomial time computable within that subclass, then those problems are NP, ⊕P or #Pcomplete. Such dichotomy results have been proved for characterizations such as Constraint Satisfaction Problems, and directed and undirected Graph Homomorphism Problems, often with additional restrictions. Here we give a dichotomy result for the more expressive framework of Holant Problems. These additionally allow for the expression of matching problems, which have had pivotal roles in complexity theory. As our main result we prove the dichotomy theorem that, for the class ⊕P, every set of boolean symmetric Holant signatures of any arities that is not polynomial time computable is ⊕Pcomplete. The result exploits some special properties of the class ⊕P and characterizes four distinct tractable subclasses within ⊕P. It leaves open the corresponding questions for NP, #P and #kP for k ̸ = 2. 1
Holant Problems for Regular Graphs with Complex Edge Functions
"... We prove a complexity dichotomy theorem for the following class of Holant Problems. Given a 3regular graph G = (V, E), compute ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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We prove a complexity dichotomy theorem for the following class of Holant Problems. Given a 3regular graph G = (V, E), compute
Networks of Relations
, 2005
"... Relations are everywhere. In particular, we think and reason in terms of mathematical and English sentences that state relations. However, we teach our students much more about how to manipulate functions than about how to manipulate relations. Consider functions. We know how to combine functions ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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Relations are everywhere. In particular, we think and reason in terms of mathematical and English sentences that state relations. However, we teach our students much more about how to manipulate functions than about how to manipulate relations. Consider functions. We know how to combine functions to make new functions, how to evaluate functions efficiently, and how to think about compositions of functions. Especially in the area of boolean functions, we have become experts in the theory and art of designing combinations of functions to yield what we want, and this expertise has led to techniques that enable
Symmetric Determinantal Representation of Formulas and Weakly Skew Circuits
, 1007
"... We deploy algebraic complexity theoretic techniques for constructing symmetric determinantal representations of formulas and weakly skew circuits. Our representations produce matrices of much smaller dimensions than those given in the convex geometry literature when applied to polynomials having a c ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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We deploy algebraic complexity theoretic techniques for constructing symmetric determinantal representations of formulas and weakly skew circuits. Our representations produce matrices of much smaller dimensions than those given in the convex geometry literature when applied to polynomials having a concise representation (as a sum of monomials, or more generally as an arithmetic formula or a weakly skew circuit). These representations are valid in any field of characteristic different from 2. In characteristic 2 we are led to an almost complete solution to a question of Bürgisser on the VNPcompleteness of the partial permanent. In particular, we show that the partial permanent cannot be VNPcomplete in a finite field of characteristic 2 unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses.