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Simplified and Improved Resolution Lower Bounds
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 37TH IEEE FOCS
, 1996
"... We give simple new lower bounds on the lengths of Resolution proofs for the pigeonhole principle and for randomly generated formulas. For random formulas, our bounds significantly extend the range of formula sizes for which nontrivial lower bounds are known. For example, we show that with probabili ..."
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Cited by 100 (7 self)
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We give simple new lower bounds on the lengths of Resolution proofs for the pigeonhole principle and for randomly generated formulas. For random formulas, our bounds significantly extend the range of formula sizes for which nontrivial lower bounds are known. For example, we show that with probability approaching 1, any Resolution refutation of a randomly chosen 3CNF formula with at most n 6=5\Gammaffl clauses requires exponential size. Previous bounds applied only when the number of clauses was at most linear in the number of variables. For the pigeonhole principle our bound is a small improvement over previous bounds. Our proofs are more elementary than previous arguments, and establish a connection between Resolution proof size and maximum clause size.
Lower Bounds for Propositional Proofs and Independence Results in Bounded Arithmetic
 Proceedings of the 23rd ICALP, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1996
"... . We begin with a highly informal discussion of the role played by Bounded Arithmetic and propositional proof systems in the reasoning about the world of feasible computations. Then we survey some known lower bounds on the complexity of proofs in various propositional proof systems, paying special a ..."
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Cited by 27 (10 self)
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. We begin with a highly informal discussion of the role played by Bounded Arithmetic and propositional proof systems in the reasoning about the world of feasible computations. Then we survey some known lower bounds on the complexity of proofs in various propositional proof systems, paying special attention to recent attempts on reducing such bounds to some purely complexity results or assumptions. As one of the main motivations for this research we discuss provability of extremely important propositional formulae that express hardness of explicit Boolean functions with respect to various nonuniform computational models. 1. Propositional proofs as feasible proofs of plain statements Interesting and viable logical theories do not appear as result of sheer speculation. Conversely, they attempt to summarize and capture a certain amount of reasoning of a certain style about a certain class of objects that had existed in the math community before the mathematical logics entered the stage....
Symmetric Approximation Arguments for Monotone Lower Bounds without Sunflowers
 Comput. Complexity
, 1997
"... We propose a symmetric version of Razborov's method of approximation to prove lower bounds for monotone circuit complexity. Traditionally, only DNF formulas have been used as approximators, whereas we use both CNF and DNF formulas. As a consequence we no longer need the Sunflower lemma that has been ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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We propose a symmetric version of Razborov's method of approximation to prove lower bounds for monotone circuit complexity. Traditionally, only DNF formulas have been used as approximators, whereas we use both CNF and DNF formulas. As a consequence we no longer need the Sunflower lemma that has been essential for the method of approximation. The new approximation...
Potential of the Approximation Method
 Proc. of the 37th IEEE Symp. on the Foundations of Computer Science
, 1996
"... Developing some techniques for the approximation method, we establish precise versions of the following statements concerning lower bounds for circuits that detect cliques of size s in a graph with m vertices: For 5 s m=4, a monotone circuit computing CLIQUE(m; s) contains at least (1=2)1:8 min( ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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Developing some techniques for the approximation method, we establish precise versions of the following statements concerning lower bounds for circuits that detect cliques of size s in a graph with m vertices: For 5 s m=4, a monotone circuit computing CLIQUE(m; s) contains at least (1=2)1:8 min( p s01=2;m=(4s)) gates: If a nonmonotone circuit computes CLIQUE using a "small" amount of negation, then the circuit contains an exponential number of gates. The former is proved very simply using so called bottleneck counting argument within the framework of approximation, whereas the latter is verified introducing a notion of restricting negation and generalizing the sunflower contraction. 1. Introduction Since Razborov, based on the approximation method, succeeded to obtain a superpolynomial lower bound on the size of monotone circuits computing the clique function, much effort has been devoted to explore the method and derive good lower bounds[K, NM, R1, R2, RR]. Employing the appr...