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118
A comparative analysis of selection schemes used in genetic algorithms
 Foundations of Genetic Algorithms
, 1991
"... This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. Specifically, proportionate reproduction, ranking selection, tournament selection, and Genitor (or «steady state") selection are compared on the basis of solutions to deterministic difference or diffe ..."
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Cited by 389 (32 self)
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This paper considers a number of selection schemes commonly used in modern genetic algorithms. Specifically, proportionate reproduction, ranking selection, tournament selection, and Genitor (or «steady state") selection are compared on the basis of solutions to deterministic difference or differential equations, which are verified through computer simulations. The analysis provides convenient approximate or exact solutions as well as useful convergence time and growth ratio estimates. The paper recommends practical application of the analyses and suggests a number of paths for more detailed analytical investigation of selection techniques. Keywords: proportionate selection, ranking selection, tournament selection, Genitor, takeover time, time complexity, growth ratio. 1
Genetic Algorithms, Noise, and the Sizing of Populations
 COMPLEX SYSTEMS
, 1991
"... This paper considers the effect of stochasticity on the quality of convergence of genetic algorithms (GAs). In many problems, the variance of buildingblock fitness or socalled collateral noise is the major source of variance, and a populationsizing equation is derived to ensure that average sig ..."
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Cited by 239 (85 self)
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This paper considers the effect of stochasticity on the quality of convergence of genetic algorithms (GAs). In many problems, the variance of buildingblock fitness or socalled collateral noise is the major source of variance, and a populationsizing equation is derived to ensure that average signaltocollateralnoise ratios are favorable to the discrimination of the best building blocks required to solve a problem of bounded deception. The sizing relation is modified to permit the inclusion of other sources of stochasticity, such as the noise of selection, the noise of genetic operators, and the explicit noise or nondeterminism of the objective function. In a test suite of five functions, the sizing relation proves to be a conservative predictor of average correct convergence, as long as all major sources of noise are considered in the sizing calculation. These results suggest how the sizing equation may be viewed as a coarse delineation of a boundary between what a physicist might call two distinct phases of GA behavior. At low population sizes the GA makes many errors of decision, and the quality of convergence is largely left to the vagaries of chance or the serial fixup of flawed results through mutation or other serial injection of diversity. At large population sizes, GAs can reliably discriminate between good and bad building blocks, and parallel processing and recombination of building blocks lead to quick solution of even difficult deceptive problems. Additionally, the paper outlines a number of extensions to this work, including the development of more refined models of the relation between generational average error and ultimate convergence quality, the development of online methods for sizing populations via the estimation of populations...
Designing Efficient And Accurate Parallel Genetic Algorithms
, 1999
"... Parallel implementations of genetic algorithms (GAs) are common, and, in most cases, they succeed to reduce the time required to find acceptable solutions. However, the effect of the parameters of parallel GAs on the quality of their search and on their efficiency are not well understood. This insuf ..."
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Cited by 222 (5 self)
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Parallel implementations of genetic algorithms (GAs) are common, and, in most cases, they succeed to reduce the time required to find acceptable solutions. However, the effect of the parameters of parallel GAs on the quality of their search and on their efficiency are not well understood. This insufficient knowledge limits our ability to design fast and accurate parallel GAs that reach the desired solutions in the shortest time possible. The goal of this dissertation is to advance the understanding of parallel GAs and to provide rational guidelines for their design. The research reported here considered three major types of parallel GAs: simple masterslave algorithms with one population, more sophisticated algorithms with multiple populations, and a hierarchical combination of the first two types. The investigation formulated simple models that predict accurately the quality of the solutions with different parameter settings. The quality predictors were transformed into populationsizing equations, which in turn were used to estimate the execution time of the algorithms.
The Gambler's Ruin Problem, Genetic Algorithms, and the Sizing of Populations
, 1997
"... This paper presents a model for predicting the convergence quality of genetic algorithms. The model incorporates previous knowledge about decision making in genetic algorithms and the initial supply of building blocks in a novel way. The result is an equation that accurately predicts the quality of ..."
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Cited by 210 (88 self)
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This paper presents a model for predicting the convergence quality of genetic algorithms. The model incorporates previous knowledge about decision making in genetic algorithms and the initial supply of building blocks in a novel way. The result is an equation that accurately predicts the quality of the solution found by a GA using a given population size. Adjustments for different selection intensities are considered and computational experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. I. Introduction The size of the population in a genetic algorithm (GA) is a major factor in determining the quality of convergence. The question of how to choose an adequate population size for a particular domain is difficult and has puzzled GA practitioners for a long time. Hard questions are better approached using a divideandconquer strategy and the population sizing issue is no exception. In this case, we can identify two factors that influence convergence quality: the initial supply of build...
Niching Methods for Genetic Algorithms
, 1995
"... Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This ..."
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Cited by 191 (1 self)
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Niching methods extend genetic algorithms to domains that require the location and maintenance of multiple solutions. Such domains include classification and machine learning, multimodal function optimization, multiobjective function optimization, and simulation of complex and adaptive systems. This study presents a comprehensive treatment of niching methods and the related topic of population diversity. Its purpose is to analyze existing niching methods and to design improved niching methods. To achieve this purpose, it first develops a general framework for the modelling of niching methods, and then applies this framework to construct models of individual niching methods, specifically crowding and sharing methods. Using a constructed model of crowding, this study determines why crowding methods over the last two decades have not made effective niching methods. A series of tests and design modifications results in the development of a highly effective form of crowding, called determin...
On Evolution, Search, Optimization, Genetic Algorithms and Martial Arts  Towards Memetic Algorithms
, 1989
"... Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that one could ..."
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Cited by 186 (10 self)
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Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that one could possibly enumerate 10 9 tours per second on a computer it would thus take roughly 10 639 years of computing to establish the optimality of this tour by exhaustive enumeration." This quote shows the real difficulty of a combinatorial optimization problem. The huge number of configurations is the primary difficulty when dealing with one of these problems. The quote belongs to M.W Padberg and M. Grotschel, Chap. 9., "Polyhedral computations", from the book The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Guided tour of Combinatorial Optimization [124]. It is interesting to compare the number of configurations of realworld problems in combinatorial optimization with those large numbers arising in Cosmol...
A Sequential Niche Technique for Multimodal Function Optimization
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1993
"... A technique is described which allows unimodal function optimization methods to be extended to efficiently locate all optima of multimodal problems. We describe an algorithm based on a traditional genetic algorithm (GA). This involves iterating the GA, but uses knowledge gained during one iteration ..."
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Cited by 127 (2 self)
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A technique is described which allows unimodal function optimization methods to be extended to efficiently locate all optima of multimodal problems. We describe an algorithm based on a traditional genetic algorithm (GA). This involves iterating the GA, but uses knowledge gained during one iteration to avoid researching, on subsequent iterations, regions of problem space where solutions have already been found. This is achieved by applying a fitness derating function to the raw fitness function, so that fitness values are depressed in the regions of the problem space where solutions have already been found. Consequently, the likelihood of discovering a new solution on each iteration is dramatically increased. The technique may be used with various styles of GA, or with other optimization methods, such as simulated annealing. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on a number of multimodal test functions. The technique is at least as fast as fitness sharing methods. It provi...
An Overview of Evolutionary Computation
, 1993
"... Evolutionary computation uses computational models of evolutionary processes as key elements in the design and implementation of computerbased problem solving systems. In this paper we provide an overview of evolutionary computation, and describe several evolutionary algorithms that are current ..."
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Cited by 106 (5 self)
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Evolutionary computation uses computational models of evolutionary processes as key elements in the design and implementation of computerbased problem solving systems. In this paper we provide an overview of evolutionary computation, and describe several evolutionary algorithms that are currently of interest. Important similarities and differences are noted, which lead to a discussion of important issues that need to be resolved, and items for future research.
What Makes a Problem Hard for a Genetic Algorithm? Some Anomalous Results and Their Explanation
 Machine Learning
, 1993
"... Abstract. What makes a problem easy or hard for a genetic algorithm (GA)? This question has become increasingly important as people have tried to apply the GA to ever more diverse types of problems. Much previous work on this question has studied the relationship between GA performance and the stru ..."
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Cited by 100 (3 self)
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Abstract. What makes a problem easy or hard for a genetic algorithm (GA)? This question has become increasingly important as people have tried to apply the GA to ever more diverse types of problems. Much previous work on this question has studied the relationship between GA performance and the structure of a given fitness function when it is expressed as a Walsh polynomial. The work of Bethke, Goldberg, and others has produced certain theoretical results about this relationship. In this article we review these theoretical results, and then discuss a number of seemingly anomalous experimental results reported by Tanese concerning the performance of the GA on a subclass of Walsh polynomials, some members of which were expected to be easy for the GA to optimize. Tanese found that the GA was poor at optimizing all functions in this subclass, that a partitioning of a single large population into a number of smaller independent populations seemed to improve performance, and that hillclimbing outperformed both the original and partitioned forms of the GA on these functions. These results seemed to contradict several commonly held expectations about GAs. We begin by reviewing schema processing in GAs. We then give an informal description of how Walsh analysis and Bethke's Walshschema transform relate to GA performance, and we discuss the relevance of this analysis for GA applications in optimization and machine learning. We then describe Tanese's surprising results, examine them experimentally and theoretically, and propose and evaluate some explanations. These explanations lead to a more fundamental question about GAs: what are the features of problems that determine the likelihood of successful GA performance?
An Overview of Genetic Algorithms: Part 1, Fundamentals
, 1993
"... this article may be reproduced for commercial purposes. 1 Introduction ..."
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Cited by 79 (1 self)
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this article may be reproduced for commercial purposes. 1 Introduction