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The Early History of Automated Deduction
 in Model Based Reasoning; Notes Workshop on ModelBased Reasoning
, 2001
"... this report. These are: 1. The one literal rule also known as the unit rule ..."
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this report. These are: 1. The one literal rule also known as the unit rule
The Ethics of SafetyCritical Systems
 Communications of the ACM
, 2000
"... Safetycritical systems require the utmost care in their specification and design to avoid errors in their implementation, using state of the art techniques in a responsible manner. To do otherwise is at best unprofessional and at worst can lead to disastrous consequences. An inappropriate approach ..."
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Safetycritical systems require the utmost care in their specification and design to avoid errors in their implementation, using state of the art techniques in a responsible manner. To do otherwise is at best unprofessional and at worst can lead to disastrous consequences. An inappropriate approach could lead to loss of life, and will almost certainly result in financial penalties in the long run, whether because of loss of business or because of the imposition of fines. Legislation and standards impose external pressures, but education and ethical considerations should help provide more selfimposed guidelines for all those involved in the production of safetycritical systems. This paper considers some of the issues involved, with pointers to material providing greater depth in particular areas, especially with respect to the use of formal methods.
The journey of the four colour theorem through time
 The NZ Math. Magazine
"... This is a historical survey of the Four Colour Theorem and a discussion of the philosophical implications of its proof. The problem, first stated as far back as 1850s, still causes controversy today. Its computeraided proof has forced mathematicians to question the notions of proofs and mathematical ..."
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This is a historical survey of the Four Colour Theorem and a discussion of the philosophical implications of its proof. The problem, first stated as far back as 1850s, still causes controversy today. Its computeraided proof has forced mathematicians to question the notions of proofs and mathematical truth.
How to Formalize It? Formalization Principles for Information System Development Methods
 Information and Software Technology
, 1998
"... Although the need for formalisation of modelling techniques is generally recognised, not much literature is devoted to the actual process involved. This is comparable to the situation in mathematics where focus is on proofs but not on the process of proving. This paper tries to accomodate for this ..."
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Although the need for formalisation of modelling techniques is generally recognised, not much literature is devoted to the actual process involved. This is comparable to the situation in mathematics where focus is on proofs but not on the process of proving. This paper tries to accomodate for this lacuna and provides essential principles for the process of formalisation in the context of modelling techniques as well as a number of small but realistic formalisation case studies.
Computer Science Research on Scientific Discovery
, 1996
"... This article is an essay on directions and methodology in computerscience oriented research on scientific discovery. The essay starts by reviewing briefly some of the history of computing in scientific reasoning, and some of the results and impact that have been achieved. The remainder analyzes som ..."
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This article is an essay on directions and methodology in computerscience oriented research on scientific discovery. The essay starts by reviewing briefly some of the history of computing in scientific reasoning, and some of the results and impact that have been achieved. The remainder analyzes some of the goals of this field, its relations with sister fields, and the practical applications of this analysis to evaluating research quality, reviewing, and methodology. An earlier review in this journal [13] analyzed scientific discovery programs in terms of their designs, achievements, and shortcomings; the focus here is research directions, evaluation, and methodology, all from the viewpoint of computer science. 2. History of Research on Scientific Discovery The early days of artificial intelligence saw various attempts to automate creative tasks of scientific and mathematical inference. Perhaps the earliest examples (on electronic computers) of symbolic mathematical or scientific inference were master's theses at MIT (J.F. Nolan) and at Temple (H.G. Kahrimanian) in 1953 on analytical differentiation in the calculus [9]. Soon after came the Logic Theorist, whose designers (A. Newell & H.A. Simon) submitted in 1958 an improved proof discovered by the program to the Journal of Symbolic Logic [5]. At around the same time, Gelernter created the Geometry Theorem Prover [7]. Starting in the 1960's, Lederberg invented an algorithm for generating molecular structures efficiently, which led to the Stanford Dendral project whose goal was to elucidate molecular structure on the basis of mass spectrograms and other experimental evidence [21]. These are some of the early events in the application of computers to problems of creative scientific and mathematical inference. A milestone ...
An Attempt to Automate NPHardness Reductions via SO∃ Logic
, 2004
"... We explore the possibility of automating NPhardness reductions. We motivate the problem from an artificial intelligence perspective, then propose the use of secondorder existential (SO#) logic as representation language for decision problems. Building upon the theoretical framework of J. Antonio ..."
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We explore the possibility of automating NPhardness reductions. We motivate the problem from an artificial intelligence perspective, then propose the use of secondorder existential (SO#) logic as representation language for decision problems. Building upon the theoretical framework of J. Antonio Medina, we explore the possibility of implementing seven syntactic operators. Each operator transforms SO# sentences in a way that preserves NPcompleteness. We subsequently propose a program which implements these operators.
A Simple Scheme to Structure and Process the Information of Parties in Online Forms of Alternative Dispute Resolution
, 2003
"... An essential problem in online forms of alternative dispute resolution is that it is difficult to structure and process the information that is exchanged between negotiating parties. This paper offers a simple scheme according to which users can enter claims and justify them with other claims. Claim ..."
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An essential problem in online forms of alternative dispute resolution is that it is difficult to structure and process the information that is exchanged between negotiating parties. This paper offers a simple scheme according to which users can enter claims and justify them with other claims. Claims can also be conceded, questioned and contradicted. Based on the information that is entered into the system, principles of computational dialectic are applied to compute which claims are established (accepted by all parties) and which are not. The scheme thus presented ensures that users are confronted with the consequences of the various claims made, which makes them hopefully more aware of the relative positions they occupy in the negotiation. The theory in the paper is illustrated with the help of a concrete businesstoconsumer dispute and a partially implemented ODR client.
Computational Discovery in Pure Mathematics
"... Abstract. We discuss what constitutes knowledge in pure mathematics and how new advances are made and communicated. We describe the impact of computer algebra systems, automated theorem provers, programs designed to generate examples, mathematical databases, and theory formation programs on the body ..."
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Abstract. We discuss what constitutes knowledge in pure mathematics and how new advances are made and communicated. We describe the impact of computer algebra systems, automated theorem provers, programs designed to generate examples, mathematical databases, and theory formation programs on the body of knowledge in pure mathematics. We discuss to what extent the output from certain programs can be considered a discovery in pure mathematics. This enables us to assess the state of the art with respect to Newell and Simon’s prediction that a computer would discover and prove an important mathematical theorem. 1