Results 1  10
of
12
On the Weak Pigeonhole Principle
, 2001
"... We investigate the proof complexity, in (extensions of) resolution and in bounded arithmetic, of the weak pigeonhole principle and of Ramsey theorem. In particular, we link the proof complexity of these two principles. Further we give lower bounds to the width of resolution proofs and to the size of ..."
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Cited by 67 (3 self)
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We investigate the proof complexity, in (extensions of) resolution and in bounded arithmetic, of the weak pigeonhole principle and of Ramsey theorem. In particular, we link the proof complexity of these two principles. Further we give lower bounds to the width of resolution proofs and to the size of (extensions of) treelike resolution proofs of Ramsey theorem. We establish a connection between provability of WPHP in fragments of bounded arithmetic and cryptographic assumptions (the existence of oneway functions). In particular, we show that functions violating WPHP 2n n are oneway and, on the other hand, that oneway permutations give rise to functions violating PHP n+1 n , and that strongly collisionfree families of hash functions give rise to functions violating WPHP 2n n (all in suitable models of bounded arithmetic). Further we formulate few problems and conjectures; in particular, on the structured PHP (introduced here) and on the unrelativised WPHP. The symbol WPHP m n...
Witnessing Functions in Bounded Arithmetic and Search Problems
, 1994
"... We investigate the possibility to characterize (multi)functions that are \Sigma b i definable with small i (i = 1; 2; 3) in fragments of bounded arithmetic T2 in terms of natural search problems defined over polynomialtime structures. We obtain the following results: 1. A reformulation of known ..."
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Cited by 35 (4 self)
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We investigate the possibility to characterize (multi)functions that are \Sigma b i definable with small i (i = 1; 2; 3) in fragments of bounded arithmetic T2 in terms of natural search problems defined over polynomialtime structures. We obtain the following results: 1. A reformulation of known characterizations of (multi)functions that are \Sigma b 1  and \Sigma b 2 definable in the theories S 1 2 and T 1 2 . 2. New characterizations of (multi)functions that are \Sigma b 2  and \Sigma b 3  definable in the theory T 2 2 . 3. A new nonconservation result: the theory T 2 2 (ff) is not 8\Sigma b 1 (ff) conservative over the theory S 2 2 (ff). To prove that the theory T 2 2 (ff) is not 8\Sigma b 1 (ff)conservative over the theory S 2 2 (ff), we present two examples of a \Sigma b 1 (ff)principle separating the two theories: (a) the weak pigeonhole principle WPHP (a 2 ; f; g) formalizing that no function f is a bijection between a 2 and a with the inverse...
A Complexity Gap for TreeResolution
 COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY
, 1999
"... It is shown that any sequence #n of tautologies which expresses the validity of a fixed combinatorial principle either is "easy" i.e. has polynomial size treeresolution proofs or is "di#cult" i.e requires exponential size treeresolution proofs. It is shown that the class of tautologies which a ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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It is shown that any sequence #n of tautologies which expresses the validity of a fixed combinatorial principle either is "easy" i.e. has polynomial size treeresolution proofs or is "di#cult" i.e requires exponential size treeresolution proofs. It is shown that the class of tautologies which are hard (for treeresolution) is identical to the class of tautologies which are based on combinatorial principles which are violated for infinite sets. Actually it is
Count(q) versus the PigeonHole Principle
, 1996
"... For each p 2 there exists a model M of I \Delta 0 (ff) which satisfies the Count(p) principle. Furthermore, if p contains all prime factors of q there exist n; r 2 M and a bijective map f 2 dom(M ) mapping f1; 2; :::; ng onto f1; 2; :::; n+ q r g. A corollary is a complete classificati ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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For each p 2 there exists a model M of I \Delta 0 (ff) which satisfies the Count(p) principle. Furthermore, if p contains all prime factors of q there exist n; r 2 M and a bijective map f 2 dom(M ) mapping f1; 2; :::; ng onto f1; 2; :::; n+ q r g. A corollary is a complete classification of the Count(q) versus Count(p) problem. Another corollary shows that the pigeonhole principle for injective maps does not follow from any of the Count(q) principles. This solves an open question [Ajtai 94]. 1 Introduction The most fundamental questions in the theory of the complexity of calculations are concerned with complexity classes in which `counting' is only possible in a quite restricted sense. Thus it is not surprising that many elementary counting principles are unprovable in systems of Bounded Arithmetic. These are axiom systems where the induction axiom schema is restricted to predicates of low syntactic complexity. For a good basic reference see [Krajicek 95]. The status of...
Combinatorics of first order structures and propositional proof systems
"... We define the notion of a combinatorics of a first order structure, and a relation of covering between first order structures and propositional proof systems. Namely, a first order structure M combinatorially satisfies an Lsentence \Phi iff \Phi holds in all Lstructures definable in M. The combina ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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We define the notion of a combinatorics of a first order structure, and a relation of covering between first order structures and propositional proof systems. Namely, a first order structure M combinatorially satisfies an Lsentence \Phi iff \Phi holds in all Lstructures definable in M. The combinatorics Comb(M) of M is the set of all sentences combinatorially satisfied in M. Structure M covers a propositional proof system P iff M combinatorially satisfies all \Phi for which the associated sequence of propositional formulas h\Phi i n, encoding that \Phi holds in Lstructures of size n, have polynomial size Pproofs. That is, Comb(M) contains all \Phi feasibly verifiable in P. Finding M that covers P but does not combinatorially satisfy \Phi thus gives a super polynomial lower bound for the size of Pproofs of h\Phi in. We show that any proof system admits a class of structures covering it; these structures are expansions of models of bounded arithmetic. We also give, using structures covering proof systems R \Lambda
Fragments of Approximate Counting
, 2012
"... We study the longstanding open problem of giving ∀Σ b 1 separations for fragments of bounded arithmetic in the relativized setting. Rather than considering the usual fragments defined by the amount of induction they allow, we study Jeˇrábek’s theories for approximate counting and their subtheories. ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We study the longstanding open problem of giving ∀Σ b 1 separations for fragments of bounded arithmetic in the relativized setting. Rather than considering the usual fragments defined by the amount of induction they allow, we study Jeˇrábek’s theories for approximate counting and their subtheories. We show that the ∀Σ b 1 Herbrandized ordering principle is unprovable in a fragment of bounded arithmetic that includes the injective weak pigeonhole principle for polynomial time functions, and also in a fragment that includes the surjective weak pigeonhole principle for FP NP functions. We further give new propositional translations, in terms of random resolution refutations, for the consequences of T 1 2 augmented with the surjective weak pigeonhole principle for polynomial time functions.
Approximate counting by hashing in bounded arithmetic
, 2008
"... We show how to formalize approximate counting via hash functions in subsystems of bounded arithmetic, using variants of the weak pigeonhole principle. We discuss several applications, including a proof of the tournament principle, and an improvement on the known relationship of the collapse of the b ..."
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We show how to formalize approximate counting via hash functions in subsystems of bounded arithmetic, using variants of the weak pigeonhole principle. We discuss several applications, including a proof of the tournament principle, and an improvement on the known relationship of the collapse of the bounded arithmetic hierarchy to the collapse of the polynomialtime hierarchy.
Approximate counting in bounded arithmetic
, 2007
"... We develop approximate counting of sets definable by Boolean circuits in bounded arithmetic using the dual weak pigeonhole principle (dWPHP(P V)), as a generalization of results from [15]. We discuss applications to formalization of randomized complexity classes (such as BPP, APP, MA, AM) in P V1 + ..."
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We develop approximate counting of sets definable by Boolean circuits in bounded arithmetic using the dual weak pigeonhole principle (dWPHP(P V)), as a generalization of results from [15]. We discuss applications to formalization of randomized complexity classes (such as BPP, APP, MA, AM) in P V1 + dWPHP(P V).