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Limits on the Efficiency of OneWay PermutationBased Hash Functions
 In Proceedings of the 40th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1999
"... Naor and Yung ([NY89]) show that a onebit compressing universal oneway hash function (UOWHF) can be constructed based on a oneway permutation. This construction can be iterated to build a UOWHF which compresses by "n bits, at the cost of "n invocations of the oneway permutation. We show that thi ..."
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Naor and Yung ([NY89]) show that a onebit compressing universal oneway hash function (UOWHF) can be constructed based on a oneway permutation. This construction can be iterated to build a UOWHF which compresses by "n bits, at the cost of "n invocations of the oneway permutation. We show that this construction is not far from optimal, in the following sense: there exists an oracle relative to which there exists a oneway permutation with inversion probability 2 \Gammap(n) (for any p(n) 2 !(log n)), but any construction of an "nbitcompressing UOWHF requires \Omega\Gamma p n=p(n)) invocations of the oneway permutation, on average. (For example, there exists in this relativized world a oneway permutation with inversion probability n \Gamma!(1) , but no UOWHF that invokes it fewer than \Omega\Gamma p n= log n) times.) Thus any proof that a more efficient UOWHF can be derived from a oneway permutation is necessarily nonrelativizing; in particular, no provable construction...
Coordination Infrastructure in Collaborative Systems
, 1995
"... models of information sharing, and runtime support based on those models, are by themselves incomplete for the task of constructing robust, practical collaborative applications. To be usable, we must provide a means for developers to access these facilities easily. This chapter has presented develop ..."
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models of information sharing, and runtime support based on those models, are by themselves incomplete for the task of constructing robust, practical collaborative applications. To be usable, we must provide a means for developers to access these facilities easily. This chapter has presented developer perspectives on the concepts introduced by Intermezzo. We have investigated a number of components of the developer support, or "toolkit," in this research, including notification, programming interfaces for accessing shared data, interfaces for accessing collaborationspecific functionality, and the use of scripting through embedded computation. Notification is one of the most important problems to be addressed in any developer support: how do applications (and, by extension, their users) become aware of changes in their environments? This problems is especially vexing in the case of coordination, where information that may be considered interesting is plentiful, change is rapid, and the...
An observation on associative oneway functions in complexity theory
 Information Processing Letters
, 1997
"... Abstract We introduce the notion of associative oneway functions and prove that they exist if and only if P 6 = NP. As evidence of their utility, we present two novel protocols that apply strong forms of these functions to achieve secret key agreement and digital signatures. ..."
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Abstract We introduce the notion of associative oneway functions and prove that they exist if and only if P 6 = NP. As evidence of their utility, we present two novel protocols that apply strong forms of these functions to achieve secret key agreement and digital signatures.
Differential Attack on Message Authentication Codes
, 1994
"... We discuss the security of Message Authentication Code (MAC) schemes from the viewpoint of differential attack, and propose an attack that is effective against DESMAC and FEALMAC. The attack derives the secret authentication key in the chosen plaintext scenario. For example, DES(8round)MAC can b ..."
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We discuss the security of Message Authentication Code (MAC) schemes from the viewpoint of differential attack, and propose an attack that is effective against DESMAC and FEALMAC. The attack derives the secret authentication key in the chosen plaintext scenario. For example, DES(8round)MAC can be broken with 2 34 pairs of plain text, while FEAL8MAC can be broken with 2 22 pairs. The proposed attack is applicable to any MAC scheme, even if the 32bits are randomly selected from among the 64bits of ciphertext generated by a cryptosystem vulnerable to differential attack in the chosen plaintext scenario.
Applying XML signatures to the definiton of an XML schema for digital ballots
, 2002
"... This article presents the definition of an XML schema of digital ballots for official elections using XML signature, thus defining the syntax of the digital ballot and providing the services of identification, integrity and nonrepudiation of the ballot. The proposed schema was validated in regard t ..."
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This article presents the definition of an XML schema of digital ballots for official elections using XML signature, thus defining the syntax of the digital ballot and providing the services of identification, integrity and nonrepudiation of the ballot. The proposed schema was validated in regard to the XML Schema standard and an application was developed in order to allow the configuration of digital ballots for official elections.
The First Ten Years of PublicKey Cryptography
, 1988
"... Publickey cryptosystems separate the capacities for encryption and decryption so that 7) many people can encrypt messages in such a way that only one person can read them, or 2) one person can encrypt messages in such a way that many people can read them. This separation allows important improvemen ..."
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Publickey cryptosystems separate the capacities for encryption and decryption so that 7) many people can encrypt messages in such a way that only one person can read them, or 2) one person can encrypt messages in such a way that many people can read them. This separation allows important improvements in the management of cryptographic keys and makes it possible to ‘sign ’ a purely digital message. Public key cryptography was discovered in the Spring of 1975 and has followed a surprising course. Although diverse systems were proposed early on, the ones that appear both practical and secure today are all very closely related and the search for new and different ones has met with little success. Despite this reliance on a limited mathematical foundation publickey cryptography is revolutionizing communication security by making possible secure communication networks with hundreds of thousands of subscribers.
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"... The literature of cryptography has a curious history. Secrecy, of course, has always played a central role, but until the First World War, important developments appeared in print in a more or less timely fashion and the field moved forward in much the same way as other specialized disciplines. As l ..."
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The literature of cryptography has a curious history. Secrecy, of course, has always played a central role, but until the First World War, important developments appeared in print in a more or less timely fashion and the field moved forward in much the same way as other specialized disciplines. As late as 1918, one of the most influential cryptanalytic papers of the twentieth century, William F. Friedman’s monograph The Index of Coincidence and Its Applications in Cryptography, appeared as a research report of the private Riverbank Laboratories [577]. And this, despite the fact that the work had been done as part of the war effort. In the same year Edward H. Hebern of Oakland, California filed the first patent for a rotor machine [710], the device destined to be a mainstay of military cryptography for nearly 50 years. After the First World War, however, things began to change. U.S. Army and Navy organizations, working entirely in secret, began to make fundamental advances in cryptography. During the thirties and forties a few basic papers did appear in the open literature and several treatises on the subject were published, but the latter were farther and farther behind the state of the art. By the end of the war the transition was complete. With one notable exception, the public literature had died. That exception was Claude Shannon’s paper “The Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, ” which