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236
Bayesian Interpolation
 Neural Computation
, 1991
"... Although Bayesian analysis has been in use since Laplace, the Bayesian method of modelcomparison has only recently been developed in depth. In this paper, the Bayesian approach to regularisation and modelcomparison is demonstrated by studying the inference problem of interpolating noisy data. T ..."
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Cited by 520 (18 self)
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Although Bayesian analysis has been in use since Laplace, the Bayesian method of modelcomparison has only recently been developed in depth. In this paper, the Bayesian approach to regularisation and modelcomparison is demonstrated by studying the inference problem of interpolating noisy data. The concepts and methods described are quite general and can be applied to many other problems. Regularising constants are set by examining their posterior probability distribution. Alternative regularisers (priors) and alternative basis sets are objectively compared by evaluating the evidence for them. `Occam's razor' is automatically embodied by this framework. The way in which Bayes infers the values of regularising constants and noise levels has an elegant interpretation in terms of the effective number of parameters determined by the data set. This framework is due to Gull and Skilling. 1 Data modelling and Occam's razor In science, a central task is to develop and compare models to a...
The minimum description length principle in coding and modeling
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1998
"... Abstract — We review the principles of Minimum Description Length and Stochastic Complexity as used in data compression and statistical modeling. Stochastic complexity is formulated as the solution to optimum universal coding problems extending Shannon’s basic source coding theorem. The normalized m ..."
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Cited by 305 (12 self)
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Abstract — We review the principles of Minimum Description Length and Stochastic Complexity as used in data compression and statistical modeling. Stochastic complexity is formulated as the solution to optimum universal coding problems extending Shannon’s basic source coding theorem. The normalized maximized likelihood, mixture, and predictive codings are each shown to achieve the stochastic complexity to within asymptotically vanishing terms. We assess the performance of the minimum description length criterion both from the vantage point of quality of data compression and accuracy of statistical inference. Context tree modeling, density estimation, and model selection in Gaussian linear regression serve as examples. Index Terms—Complexity, compression, estimation, inference, universal modeling.
Automatic Construction of Decision Trees from Data: A MultiDisciplinary Survey
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1997
"... Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial ne ..."
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Cited by 146 (1 self)
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Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial neural networks. Researchers in these disciplines, sometimes working on quite different problems, identified similar issues and heuristics for decision tree construction. This paper surveys existing work on decision tree construction, attempting to identify the important issues involved, directions the work has taken and the current state of the art. Keywords: classification, treestructured classifiers, data compaction 1. Introduction Advances in data collection methods, storage and processing technology are providing a unique challenge and opportunity for automated data exploration techniques. Enormous amounts of data are being collected daily from major scientific projects e.g., Human Genome...
Model Selection and the Principle of Minimum Description Length
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 1998
"... This paper reviews the principle of Minimum Description Length (MDL) for problems of model selection. By viewing statistical modeling as a means of generating descriptions of observed data, the MDL framework discriminates between competing models based on the complexity of each description. This ..."
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Cited by 145 (5 self)
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This paper reviews the principle of Minimum Description Length (MDL) for problems of model selection. By viewing statistical modeling as a means of generating descriptions of observed data, the MDL framework discriminates between competing models based on the complexity of each description. This approach began with Kolmogorov's theory of algorithmic complexity, matured in the literature on information theory, and has recently received renewed interest within the statistics community. In the pages that follow, we review both the practical as well as the theoretical aspects of MDL as a tool for model selection, emphasizing the rich connections between information theory and statistics. At the boundary between these two disciplines, we find many interesting interpretations of popular frequentist and Bayesian procedures. As we will see, MDL provides an objective umbrella under which rather disparate approaches to statistical modeling can coexist and be compared. We illustrate th...
An efficient, probabilistically sound algorithm for segmentation and word discovery
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1999
"... This paper presents a modelbased, unsupervised algorithm for recovering word boundaries in a naturallanguage text from which they have been deleted. The algorithm is derived from a probability model of the source that generated the text. The fundamental structure of the model is specified abstract ..."
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Cited by 142 (2 self)
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This paper presents a modelbased, unsupervised algorithm for recovering word boundaries in a naturallanguage text from which they have been deleted. The algorithm is derived from a probability model of the source that generated the text. The fundamental structure of the model is specified abstractly so that the detailed component models of phonology, wordorder, and word frequency can be replaced in a modular fashion. The model yields a languageindependent, prior probability distribution on all possible sequences of all possible words over a given alphabet, based on the assumption that the input was generated by concatenating words from a fixed but unknown lexicon. The model is unusual in that it treats the generation of a complete corpus, regardless of length, as a single event in the probability space. Accordingly, the algorithm does not estimate a probability distribution on words; instead, it attempts to calculate the prior probabilities of various word sequences that could underlie the observed text. Experiments on phonemic transcripts of spontaneous speech by parents to young children suggest that our algorithm is more effective than other proposed algorithms, at least when utterance boundaries are given and the text includes a substantial number of short utterances.
Separateandconquer rule learning
 Artificial Intelligence Review
, 1999
"... This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of ..."
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Cited by 135 (29 self)
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This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of algorithms into a single framework and analyze them along three different dimensions, namely their search, language and overfitting avoidance biases.
Bayesian Models for Keyhole Plan Recognition in an Adventure Game
, 1998
"... We present an approach to keyhole plan recognition which uses a dynamic belief (Bayesian) network to represent features of the domain that are needed to identify users' plans and goals. The application domain is a MultiUser Dungeon adventure game with thousands of possible actions and locations. W ..."
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Cited by 118 (10 self)
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We present an approach to keyhole plan recognition which uses a dynamic belief (Bayesian) network to represent features of the domain that are needed to identify users' plans and goals. The application domain is a MultiUser Dungeon adventure game with thousands of possible actions and locations. We propose several network structures which represent the relations in the domain to varying extents, and compare their predictive power for predicting a user's current goal, next action and next location. The conditional probability distributions for each network are learned during a training phase, which dynamically builds these probabilities from observations of user behaviour. This approach allows the use of incomplete, sparse and noisy data during both training and testing. We then apply simple abstraction and learning techniques in order to speed up the performance of the most promising dynamic belief networks without a significant change in the accuracy of goal predictions. Our experi...
Generalizing Case Frames Using a Thesaurus and the MDL Principle
 Computational Linguistics
, 1998
"... this paper, we confine ourselves to the former issue, and refer the interested reader to Li and Abe (1996), which deals with the latter issue ..."
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Cited by 106 (4 self)
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this paper, we confine ourselves to the former issue, and refer the interested reader to Li and Abe (1996), which deals with the latter issue
Minimum Message Length and Kolmogorov Complexity
 Computer Journal
, 1999
"... this paper is to describe some of the relationships among the different streams and to try to clarify some of the important differences in their assumptions and development. Other studies mentioning the relationships appear in [1, Section IV, pp. 10381039], [2, sections 5.2, 5.5] and [3, p. 465] ..."
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Cited by 104 (25 self)
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this paper is to describe some of the relationships among the different streams and to try to clarify some of the important differences in their assumptions and development. Other studies mentioning the relationships appear in [1, Section IV, pp. 10381039], [2, sections 5.2, 5.5] and [3, p. 465]
Cooperative Robust Estimation Using Layers of Support
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1991
"... We present an approach to the problem of representing images that contain multiple objects or surfaces. Rather than use an edgebased approach to represent the segmentation of a scene, we propose a multilayer estimation framework which uses support maps to represent the segmentation of the image in ..."
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Cited by 86 (5 self)
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We present an approach to the problem of representing images that contain multiple objects or surfaces. Rather than use an edgebased approach to represent the segmentation of a scene, we propose a multilayer estimation framework which uses support maps to represent the segmentation of the image into homogeneous chunks. This supportbased approach can represent objects that are split into disjoint regions, or have surfaces that are transparently interleaved. Our framework is based on an extension of robust estimation methods which provide a theoretical basis for supportbased estimation. The Minimum Description Length principle is used to decide how many support maps to use in describing a particular image. We show results applying this framework to heterogeneous interpolation and segmentation tasks on range and motion imagery. 1 Introduction Realworld perceptual systems must deal with complicated and cluttered environments. To succeed in such environments, a system must be able to r...