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84
Practical Byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery
 ACM Transactions on Computer Systems
, 2002
"... Our growing reliance on online services accessible on the Internet demands highly available systems that provide correct service without interruptions. Software bugs, operator mistakes, and malicious attacks are a major cause of service interruptions and they can cause arbitrary behavior, that is, B ..."
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Cited by 312 (8 self)
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Our growing reliance on online services accessible on the Internet demands highly available systems that provide correct service without interruptions. Software bugs, operator mistakes, and malicious attacks are a major cause of service interruptions and they can cause arbitrary behavior, that is, Byzantine faults. This article describes a new replication algorithm, BFT, that can be used to build highly available systems that tolerate Byzantine faults. BFT can be used in practice to implement real services: it performs well, it is safe in asynchronous environments such as the Internet, it incorporates mechanisms to defend against Byzantinefaulty clients, and it recovers replicas proactively. The recovery mechanism allows the algorithm to tolerate any number of faults over the lifetime of the system provided fewer than 1/3 of the replicas become faulty within a small window of vulnerability. BFT has been implemented as a generic program library with a simple interface. We used the library to implement the first Byzantinefaulttolerant NFS file system, BFS. The BFT library and BFS perform well because the library incorporates several important optimizations, the most important of which is the use of symmetric cryptography to authenticate messages. The performance results show that BFS performs 2 % faster to 24 % slower than production implementations of the NFS protocol that are not replicated. This supports our claim that the
Designing Programs That Check Their Work
, 1989
"... A program correctness checker is an algorithm for checking the output of a computation. That is, given a program and an instance on which the program is run, the checker certifies whether the output of the program on that instance is correct. This paper defines the concept of a program checker. It d ..."
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Cited by 307 (17 self)
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A program correctness checker is an algorithm for checking the output of a computation. That is, given a program and an instance on which the program is run, the checker certifies whether the output of the program on that instance is correct. This paper defines the concept of a program checker. It designs program checkers for a few specific and carefully chosen problems in the class FP of functions computable in polynomial time. Problems in FP for which checkers are presented in this paper include Sorting, Matrix Rank and GCD. It also applies methods of modern cryptography, especially the idea of a probabilistic interactive proof, to the design of program checkers for group theoretic computations. Two strucural theorems are proven here. One is a characterization of problems that can be checked. The other theorem establishes equivalence classes of problems such that whenever one problem in a class is checkable, all problems in the class are checkable.
SmallBias Probability Spaces: Efficient Constructions and Applications
 SIAM J. Comput
, 1993
"... We show how to efficiently construct a small probability space on n binary random variables such that for every subset, its parity is either zero or one with "almost" equal probability. They are called fflbiased random variables. The number of random bits needed to generate the random variables is ..."
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Cited by 258 (15 self)
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We show how to efficiently construct a small probability space on n binary random variables such that for every subset, its parity is either zero or one with "almost" equal probability. They are called fflbiased random variables. The number of random bits needed to generate the random variables is O(log n + log 1 ffl ). Thus, if ffl is polynomially small, then the size of the sample space is also polynomial. Random variables that are fflbiased can be used to construct "almost" kwise independent random variables where ffl is a function of k. These probability spaces have various applications: 1. Derandomization of algorithms: many randomized algorithms that require only k wise independence of their random bits (where k is bounded by O(log n)), can be derandomized by using fflbiased random variables. 2. Reducing the number of random bits required by certain randomized algorithms, e.g., verification of matrix multiplication. 3. Exhaustive testing of combinatorial circui...
Fast batch verification for modular exponentiation and digital signatures
, 1998
"... Abstract Many tasks in cryptography (e.g., digital signature verification) call for verification of a basicoperation like modular exponentiation in some group: given ( g, x, y) check that gx = y. Thisis typically done by recomputing gx and checking we get y. We would like to do it differently,and f ..."
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Cited by 129 (2 self)
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Abstract Many tasks in cryptography (e.g., digital signature verification) call for verification of a basicoperation like modular exponentiation in some group: given ( g, x, y) check that gx = y. Thisis typically done by recomputing gx and checking we get y. We would like to do it differently,and faster. The approach we use is batching. Focusing first on the basic modular exponentiation operation, we provide some probabilistic batch verifiers, or tests, that verify a sequence of modular exponentiations significantly faster than the naive recomputation method. This yields speedupsfor several verification tasks that involve modular exponentiations.
Software Engineering for Security: a Roadmap
 THE FUTURE OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 2000
"... Is there such a thing anymore as a software system that doesn't need to be secure? Almost every softwarecontrolled system faces threats from potential adversaries, from Internetaware client applications running on PCs, to complex telecommunications and power systems accessible over the Internet, to ..."
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Cited by 113 (0 self)
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Is there such a thing anymore as a software system that doesn't need to be secure? Almost every softwarecontrolled system faces threats from potential adversaries, from Internetaware client applications running on PCs, to complex telecommunications and power systems accessible over the Internet, to commodity software with copy protection mechanisms. Software engineers must be cognizant of these threats and engineer systems with credible defenses, while still delivering value to customers. In this paper, we present our perspectives on the research issues that arise in the interactions between software engineering and security.
Pors: proofs of retrievability for large files
 In CCS ’07: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security
, 2007
"... Abstract. In this paper, we define and explore proofs of retrievability (PORs). A POR scheme enables an archive or backup service (prover) to produce a concise proof that a user (verifier) can retrieve a target file F, that is, that the archive retains and reliably transmits file data sufficient fo ..."
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Cited by 106 (7 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we define and explore proofs of retrievability (PORs). A POR scheme enables an archive or backup service (prover) to produce a concise proof that a user (verifier) can retrieve a target file F, that is, that the archive retains and reliably transmits file data sufficient for the user to recover F in its entirety. A POR may be viewed as a kind of cryptographic proof of knowledge (POK), but one specially designed to handle a large file (or bitstring) F. We explore POR protocols here in which the communication costs, number of memory accesses for the prover, and storage requirements of the user (verifier) are small parameters essentially independent of the length of F. In addition to proposing new, practical POR constructions, we explore implementation considerations and optimizations that bear on previously explored, related schemes. In a POR, unlike a POK, neither the prover nor the verifier need actually have knowledge of F. PORs give rise to a new and unusual security definition whose formulation is another contribution of our work. We view PORs as an important tool for semitrusted online archives. Existing cryptographic techniques help users ensure the privacy and integrity of files they retrieve. It is also natural, however, for users to want to verify that archives do not delete or modify files prior to retrieval. The goal of a POR is to accomplish these checks without users having to download the files themselves. A POR can also provide qualityofservice guarantees, i.e., show that a file is retrievable within a certain time bound. Key words: storage systems, storage security, proofs of retrievability, proofs of knowledge 1
Software Reliability via RunTime ResultChecking
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1994
"... We review the field of resultchecking, discussing simple checkers and selfcorrectors. We argue that such checkers could profitably be incorporated in software as an aid to efficient debugging and reliable functionality. We consider how to modify traditional checking methodologies to make them more ..."
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Cited by 101 (2 self)
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We review the field of resultchecking, discussing simple checkers and selfcorrectors. We argue that such checkers could profitably be incorporated in software as an aid to efficient debugging and reliable functionality. We consider how to modify traditional checking methodologies to make them more appropriate for use in realtime, realnumber computer systems. In particular, we suggest that checkers should be allowed to use stored randomness: i.e., that they should be allowed to generate, preprocess, and store random bits prior to runtime, and then to use this information repeatedly in a series of runtime checks. In a case study of checking a general realnumber linear transformation (for example, a Fourier Transform), we present a simple checker which uses stored randomness, and a selfcorrector which is particularly efficient if stored randomness is allowed.
HAIL: A HighAvailability and Integrity Layer for Cloud Storage
, 2009
"... We introduce HAIL (HighAvailability and Integrity Layer), a distributed cryptographic system that permits a set of servers to prove to a client that a stored file is intact and retrievable. HAIL strengthens, formally unifies, and streamlines distinct approaches from the cryptographic and distribute ..."
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Cited by 79 (1 self)
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We introduce HAIL (HighAvailability and Integrity Layer), a distributed cryptographic system that permits a set of servers to prove to a client that a stored file is intact and retrievable. HAIL strengthens, formally unifies, and streamlines distinct approaches from the cryptographic and distributedsystems communities. Proofs in HAIL are efficiently computable by servers and highly compact— typically tens or hundreds of bytes, irrespective of file size. HAIL cryptographically verifies and reactively reallocates file shares. It is robust against an active, mobile adversary, i.e., one that may progressively corrupt the full set of servers. We propose a strong, formal adversarial model for HAIL, and rigorous analysis and parameter choices. We show how HAIL improves on the security and efficiency of existing tools, like Proofs of Retrievability (PORs) deployed on individual servers. We also report on a prototype implementation. 1
How to build a trusted database system on untrusted storage
 In Proceedings of the 4th USENIX Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation
, 2000
"... Some emerging applications require programs to maintain sensitive state on untrusted hosts. This paper presents the architecture and implementation of a trusted database system, TDB, which leverages a small amount of trusted storage to protect a scalable amount of untrusted storage. The database is ..."
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Cited by 76 (4 self)
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Some emerging applications require programs to maintain sensitive state on untrusted hosts. This paper presents the architecture and implementation of a trusted database system, TDB, which leverages a small amount of trusted storage to protect a scalable amount of untrusted storage. The database is encrypted and validated against a collisionresistant hash kept in trusted storage, so untrusted programs cannot read the database or modify it undetectably. TDB integrates encryption and hashing with a lowlevel data model, which protects data and metadata uniformly, unlike systems built on top of a conventional database system. The implementation exploits synergies between hashing and logstructured storage. Preliminary performance results show that TDB outperforms an offtheshelf embedded database system, thus supporting the suitability of the TDB architecture. 1
Scalable and efficient provable data possession
 Proceedings of SecureComm 2008
"... Storage outsourcing is a rising trend which prompts a number of interesting security issues, many of which have been extensively investigated in the past. However, Provable Data Possession (PDP) is a topic that has only recently appeared in the research literature. The main issue is how to frequentl ..."
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Cited by 53 (2 self)
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Storage outsourcing is a rising trend which prompts a number of interesting security issues, many of which have been extensively investigated in the past. However, Provable Data Possession (PDP) is a topic that has only recently appeared in the research literature. The main issue is how to frequently, efficiently and securely verify that a storage server is faithfully storing its client’s (potentially very large) outsourced data. The storage server is assumed to be untrusted in terms of both security and reliability. (In other words, it might maliciously or accidentally erase hosted data; it might also relegate it to slow or offline storage.) The problem is exacerbated by the client being a small computing device with limited resources. Prior work has addressed this problem using either public key cryptography or requiring the client to outsource its data in encrypted form. In this paper, we construct a highly efficient and provably secure PDP technique based entirely on symmetric key cryptography, while not requiring any bulk encryption. Also, in contrast with its predecessors, our PDP technique allows outsourcing of dynamic data, i.e, it efficiently supports operations, such as block modification, deletion and append. 1.