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LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS AND OPTIMALITY
, 1993
"... Lagrange multipliers used to be viewed as auxiliary variables introduced in a problem of constrained minimization in order to write firstorder optimality conditions formally as a system of equations. Modern applications, with their emphasis on numerical methods and more complicated side conditions ..."
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Cited by 114 (7 self)
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Lagrange multipliers used to be viewed as auxiliary variables introduced in a problem of constrained minimization in order to write firstorder optimality conditions formally as a system of equations. Modern applications, with their emphasis on numerical methods and more complicated side conditions than equations, have demanded deeper understanding of the concept and how it fits into a larger theoretical picture. A major line of research has been the nonsmooth geometry of onesided tangent and normal vectors to the set of points satisfying the given constraints. Another has been the gametheoretic role of multiplier vectors as solutions to a dual problem. Interpretations as generalized derivatives of the optimal value with respect to problem parameters have also been explored. Lagrange multipliers are now being seen as arising from a general rule for the subdifferentiation of a nonsmooth objective function which allows blackandwhite constraints to be replaced by penalty expressions. This paper traces such themes in the current theory of Lagrange multipliers, providing along the way a freestanding exposition of basic nonsmooth analysis as motivated by and applied to this subject.
MCPLIB: A Collection of Nonlinear Mixed Complementarity Problems
 Optimization Methods and Software
, 1994
"... The origins and some motivational details of a collection of nonlinear mixed complementarity problems are given. This collection serves two purposes. Firstly, it gives a uniform basis for testing currently available and new algorithms for mixed complementarity problems. Function and Jacobian evaluat ..."
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Cited by 88 (33 self)
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The origins and some motivational details of a collection of nonlinear mixed complementarity problems are given. This collection serves two purposes. Firstly, it gives a uniform basis for testing currently available and new algorithms for mixed complementarity problems. Function and Jacobian evaluations for the resulting problems are provided via a GAMS interface, making thorough testing of algorithms on practical complementarity problems possible. Secondly, it gives examples of how to formulate many popular problem formats as mixed complementarity problems and how to describe the resulting problems in GAMS format. We demonstrate the ease and power of formulating practical models in the MCP format. Given these examples, it is hoped that this collection will grow to include many problems that test complementarity algorithms more fully. The collection is available by anonymous ftp. Computational results using the PATH solver covering all of these problems are described. 1 Introduction R...
Operator Splitting Methods for Monotone Affine Variational Inequalities, with a Parallel Application to Optimal Control
 INFORMS J. Comput
, 1994
"... This paper applies splitting techniques developed for setvalued maximal monotone operators to monotone affine variational inequalities, including as a special case the classical linear complementarity problem. We give a unified presentation of several splitting algorithms for monotone operators, an ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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This paper applies splitting techniques developed for setvalued maximal monotone operators to monotone affine variational inequalities, including as a special case the classical linear complementarity problem. We give a unified presentation of several splitting algorithms for monotone operators, and then apply these results to obtain two classes of algorithms for affine variational inequalities. The second class resembles classical matrix splitting, but has a novel "underrelaxation " step, and converges under more general conditions. In particular, the convergence proofs do not require the affine operator to be symmetric. We specialize our matrixsplittinglike method to discretetime optimal control problems formulated as extended linearquadratic programs in the manner advocated by Rockafellar and Wets. The result is a highly parallel algorithm, which we implement and test on the Connection Machine CM5 computer family. The affine variational inequality problem is to find a vector x...
Robust Solution Of Mixed Complementarity Problems
, 1994
"... This thesis is concerned with algorithms and software for the solution of the Mixed Complementarity Problem, or MCP. The MCP formulation is useful for expressing systems of nonlinear inequalities and equations; the complementarity allows boundary conditions be to specified in a succinct manner. Prob ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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This thesis is concerned with algorithms and software for the solution of the Mixed Complementarity Problem, or MCP. The MCP formulation is useful for expressing systems of nonlinear inequalities and equations; the complementarity allows boundary conditions be to specified in a succinct manner. Problems of this type occur in many branches of the sciences, including mathematics, engineering, economics, operations research, and computer science. The algorithm we propose for the solution of MCP is a Newton based method containing a novel application of a nonmonotone stabilization technique previously applied to methods for solving smooth systems of equalities and for unconstrained minimization. In order to apply this technique, we have adapted and extended the path construction technique of Ralph (1994), resulting in the PATH algorithm. We present a global convergence result for the PATH algorithm that generalizes similar results obtained in the smooth case. The PATH solver is a sophisticated implementation of this algorithm that makes use of the sparse basis updating package of MINOS 5.4. Due to the widespread use of algebraic modeling languages in the practice of operations research, economics, and other fields from which complementarity problems are drawn, we have developed a complementarity facility for both the GAMS and AMPL modeling languages, as well as software interface libraries to be used in hooking up a complementarity solver as a solution subsystem. These interface libraries provide the algorithm developer with a convenient and efficient means of developing and testing an algorithm, ...
Duality and optimality in multistage stochastic programming
 Ann. Oper. Res
, 1999
"... Abstract. A model of multistage stochastic programming over a scenario tree is developed in which the evolution of information states, as represented by the nodes of a scenario tree, is supplemented by a dynamical system of state vectors controlled by recourse decisions. A dual problem is obtained i ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Abstract. A model of multistage stochastic programming over a scenario tree is developed in which the evolution of information states, as represented by the nodes of a scenario tree, is supplemented by a dynamical system of state vectors controlled by recourse decisions. A dual problem is obtained in which multipliers associated with the primal dynamics are price vectors that are propagated backward in time through a dual dynamical system involving conditional expectation. A format of Fenchel duality is employed in order to have immediate specialization not only to linear programming but extended linearquadratic programming. The resulting optimality conditions support schemes of decomposition in which a separate optimization problem is solved at each node of the scenario tree.
Largescale extended linearquadratic programming and multistage optimization
 Advances in Numerical Partial Differential Equations and Optimization, chapter 15
, 1991
"... Abstract. Optimization problems in discrete time can be modeled more flexibly by extended linearquadratic programming than by traditional linear or quadratic programming, because penalties and other expressions that may substitute for constraints can readily be incorporated and dualized. At the same ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract. Optimization problems in discrete time can be modeled more flexibly by extended linearquadratic programming than by traditional linear or quadratic programming, because penalties and other expressions that may substitute for constraints can readily be incorporated and dualized. At the same time, dynamics can be written with state vectors as in dynamic programming and optimal control. This suggests new primaldual approaches to solving multistage problems. The special setting for such numerical methods is described. New results are presented on the calculation of gradients of the primal and dual objective functions and on the convergence effects of strict quadratic regularization.