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12
Structured Theory Development for a Mechanized Logic
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1999
"... Experience has shown that large or multiuser interactive proof efforts can benefit significantly from structuring mechanisms, much like those available in many modern programming languages. Such a mechanism can allow some lemmas and definitions to be exported, and others not. In this paper we addre ..."
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Cited by 48 (14 self)
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Experience has shown that large or multiuser interactive proof efforts can benefit significantly from structuring mechanisms, much like those available in many modern programming languages. Such a mechanism can allow some lemmas and definitions to be exported, and others not. In this paper we address two such structuring mechanisms for the ACL2 theorem prover: encapsulation and books. After presenting an introduction to ACL2, this paper justifies the implementation of ACL2's structuring mechanisms and, more generally, formulates and proves highlevel correctness properties of ACL2. The issues in the present paper are relevant not only for ACL2 but also for other theoremproving environments.
Partial Functions in ACL2
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
"... We describe a macro for introducing \partial functions" into ACL2, i.e., functions not dened everywhere. The function \denitions" are actually admitted via the encapsulation principle. We discuss the basic issues surrounding partial functions in ACL2 and illustrate theorems that can be proved ab ..."
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Cited by 31 (7 self)
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We describe a macro for introducing \partial functions" into ACL2, i.e., functions not dened everywhere. The function \denitions" are actually admitted via the encapsulation principle. We discuss the basic issues surrounding partial functions in ACL2 and illustrate theorems that can be proved about such functions.
NonStandard Analysis in ACL2
, 2001
"... ACL2 refers to a mathematical logic based on applicative Common Lisp, as well as to an automated theorem prover for this logic. The numeric system of ACL2 reflects that of Common Lisp, including the rational and complexrational numbers and excluding the real and complex irrationals. In conjunction ..."
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Cited by 18 (7 self)
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ACL2 refers to a mathematical logic based on applicative Common Lisp, as well as to an automated theorem prover for this logic. The numeric system of ACL2 reflects that of Common Lisp, including the rational and complexrational numbers and excluding the real and complex irrationals. In conjunction with the arithmetic completion axioms, this numeric type system makes it possible to prove the nonexistence of specific irrational numbers, such as √2. This paper describes ACL2(r), a version of ACL2 with support for the real and complex numbers. The modifications are based on nonstandard analysis, which interacts better with the discrete flavor of ACL2 than does traditional analysis.
Algorithms for ordinal arithmetic
 In 19th International Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE
, 2003
"... Abstract. Proofs of termination are essential for establishing the correct behavior of computing systems. There are various ways of establishing termination, but the most general involves the use of ordinals. An example of a theorem proving system in which ordinals are used to prove termination is A ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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Abstract. Proofs of termination are essential for establishing the correct behavior of computing systems. There are various ways of establishing termination, but the most general involves the use of ordinals. An example of a theorem proving system in which ordinals are used to prove termination is ACL2. In ACL2, every function defined must be shown to terminate using the ordinals up to ɛ0. We use a compact notation for the ordinals up to ɛ0 (exponentially more succinct than the one used by ACL2) and define efficient algorithms for ordinal addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation. In this paper we describe our notation and algorithms, prove their correctness, and analyze their complexity. 1
SingleThreaded Objects in ACL2
 Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages (PADL), volume 2257 of LNCS
, 1999
"... ACL2 is a firstorder applicative programming language based on Common Lisp. It is also a mathematical logic for which a mechanical theoremprover has been implemented in the style of the BoyerMoore theorem prover. The ACL2 system is used primarily in the modeling and verification of computer hardwa ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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ACL2 is a firstorder applicative programming language based on Common Lisp. It is also a mathematical logic for which a mechanical theoremprover has been implemented in the style of the BoyerMoore theorem prover. The ACL2 system is used primarily in the modeling and verification of computer hardware and software, where the executability of the language allows models to be used as prototype designs or "simulators." To support efficient execution of certain kinds of models, especially models of microprocessors, ACL2 provides "singlethreaded objects," structures with the usual "copy on write" applicative semantics but for which writes are implemented destructively. Syntactic restrictions insure consistency between the formal semantics and the implementation. The design of singlethreaded objects has been influenced both by the need to make execution efficient and the need to make proofs about them simple. We discuss the issues. 1 Background "ACL2" stands for "A Computational Logic for...
Formal Verification of Divide and Square Root Algorithms using Series Calculation
, 2002
"... IBM Power4 processor uses series approximation to calculate divide and square root. We formally verified that the algorithms with a series of rigorous error bound analysis using the ACL2 theorem prover. ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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IBM Power4 processor uses series approximation to calculate divide and square root. We formally verified that the algorithms with a series of rigorous error bound analysis using the ACL2 theorem prover.
Ordinal arithmetic: Algorithms and mechanization
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 2006
"... Abstract. Termination proofs are of critical importance for establishing the correct behavior of both transformational and reactive computing systems. A general setting for establishing termination proofs involves the use of the ordinal numbers, an extension of the natural numbers into the transfini ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Abstract. Termination proofs are of critical importance for establishing the correct behavior of both transformational and reactive computing systems. A general setting for establishing termination proofs involves the use of the ordinal numbers, an extension of the natural numbers into the transfinite which were introduced by Cantor in the nineteenth century and are at the core of modern set theory. We present the first comprehensive treatment of ordinal arithmetic on compact ordinal notations and give efficient algorithms for various operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation. Using the ACL2 theorem proving system, we implemented our ordinal arithmetic algorithms, mechanically verified their correctness, and developed a library of theorems that can be used to significantly automate reasoning involving the ordinals. To enable users of the ACL2 system to fully utilize our work required that we modify ACL2, e.g., we replaced the underlying representation of the ordinals and added a large library of definitions and theorems. Our modifications are available starting with ACL2 version 2.8. 1.
A suite of hard ACL2 theorems arising in refinementbased processor verification
 Fifth International Workshop on the ACL2 Theorem Prover and Its Applications (ACL22004), November 2004. See URL http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/moore/acl2/workshop2004
, 2004
"... Abstract. We have been using ACL2 to verify pipelined machine models for several years and have compiled a suite of 18 problems that arose in the theorem proving process. We believe that this suite will be useful for the future development of ACL2 because it consists of difficult problems that arise ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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Abstract. We have been using ACL2 to verify pipelined machine models for several years and have compiled a suite of 18 problems that arose in the theorem proving process. We believe that this suite will be useful for the future development of ACL2 because it consists of difficult problems that arise in practice, and furthermore, these problems can be handled efficiently by other methods. For example, ACL2 was able to prove the simplest problem in the suite after 15 1 2 days, but UCLID was able to prove the same theorem in seconds. 1
Turtles All The Way Down: ∗ A CleanSlate, GroundUp, FirstPrinciples Approach to Secure Systems
"... In this paper, we present a set of security requirements for critical systems, fundamental premises that those requirements would entail, and ideas for implementations that would instantiate those premises. We discuss the overriding requirement guiding our paradigm: that “first principles ” reflects ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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In this paper, we present a set of security requirements for critical systems, fundamental premises that those requirements would entail, and ideas for implementations that would instantiate those premises. We discuss the overriding requirement guiding our paradigm: that “first principles ” reflects the only real security strategy, where first principles are ideally provable, often measurable; and at minimum, possible to order and bound. These principles allow us to take into account that many security policies may be even be in conflict, and as such, proofs, measures, and ordering gives an analyst (or even better, an automated system) the metrics that one needs in order to make informed decisions about how to resolve conflicts. We demonstrate several metrics that enable this, including state replication, data slicing, collusion, and information theory. Categories and Subject Descriptors