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Connectionist and Diffusion Models of Reaction Time
, 1997
"... Two connectionist frameworks, GRAIN (McClelland, 1993) and BSB (Anderson, 1991), and the diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) were evaluated using data from a signal detection task. Subjects were asked to choose one of two possible responses to a stimulus and were provided feedback about whether the cho ..."
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Cited by 166 (53 self)
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Two connectionist frameworks, GRAIN (McClelland, 1993) and BSB (Anderson, 1991), and the diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) were evaluated using data from a signal detection task. Subjects were asked to choose one of two possible responses to a stimulus and were provided feedback about whether the choice was correct. The dependent variables included response probabilities, reaction times for correct and error responses, and reaction time distributions, and the independent variables were stimulus value, stimulus probability, and lag from an abrupt switch in stimulus probability. The diffusion model accounted for all aspects of the asymptotic data, including error reaction times, which had previously been a problem. The connectionist models accounted for many aspects of the data adequately, but each failed to a greater or lesser degree in important ways except for one model very similar to the diffusion model. The connectionist learning mechanisms were unable to account for initial learning or abrupt changes in stimulus probability. The results provide an advance in the development of the diffusion model and show that the long tradition of reaction time research and theory is a fertile domain for development and testing of connectionist assumptions about how decisions are generated over time.
TOWARD A UNIFIED THEORY OF DECISION CRITERION LEARNING IN PERCEPTUAL CATEGORIZATION
 JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR
, 2002
"... Optimal decision criterion placement maximizes expected reward and requires sensitivity to the category base rates (prior probabilities) and payoffs (costs and benefits of incorrect and correct responding). When base rates are unequal, human decision criterion is nearly optimal, but when payoffs are ..."
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Cited by 26 (12 self)
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Optimal decision criterion placement maximizes expected reward and requires sensitivity to the category base rates (prior probabilities) and payoffs (costs and benefits of incorrect and correct responding). When base rates are unequal, human decision criterion is nearly optimal, but when payoffs are unequal, suboptimal decision criterion placement is observed, even when the optimal decision criterion is identical in both cases. A series of studies are reviewed that examine the generality of this finding, and a unified theory of decision criterion learning is described (Maddox & Dodd, 2001). The theory assumes that two critical mechanisms operate in decision criterion learning. One mechanism involves competition between reward and accuracy maximization: The observer attempts to maximize reward, as instructed, but also places some importance on accuracy maximization. The second mechanism involves a flatmaxima hypothesis that assumes that the observer’s estimate of the rewardmaximizing decision criterion is determined from the steepness of the objective reward function that relates expected reward to decision criterion placement. Experiments used to develop and test the theory require each observer to complete a large number of trials and to participate in all conditions of the experiment. This provides maximal control over the reinforcement history of the observer and allows a focus on individual behavioral profiles. The theory is applied to decision criterion learning problems that examine category discriminability, payoff matrix multiplication and addition effects, the optimal classifier’s independence assumption, and different types of trialbytrial feedback. In every case the theory provides a good account of the data, and, most important, provides useful insights into the psychological processes involved in decision criterion learning.
Category discriminability, baserate, and payoff effects in perceptual organization
 Perception & Psychophysics
, 2001
"... (i.e., d ¢ level), base rates, and payoffs was examined. Baserate and payoff manipulations across two category discriminabilities allowed a test of the hypothesis that the steepness of the objective reward function affects performance (i.e., the flatmaxima hypothesis), as well as the hypothesis th ..."
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Cited by 10 (7 self)
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(i.e., d ¢ level), base rates, and payoffs was examined. Baserate and payoff manipulations across two category discriminabilities allowed a test of the hypothesis that the steepness of the objective reward function affects performance (i.e., the flatmaxima hypothesis), as well as the hypothesis that observers combine baserate and payoff information independently. Performance was (1) closer to optimal for the steeper objective reward function, in line with the flatmaxima hypothesis, (2) closer to optimal in baserate conditions than in payoff conditions, and (3) in partial support of the hypothesis that baserate and payoff knowledge is combined independently. Implications for current theories of baserate and payoff learning are discussed.
On the generality of optimal versus objective classifier feedback effects on decision criterion learning in perceptual categorization
 Memory & Cognition
"... Biased category payoff matrices engender separate reward and accuracymaximizing decision criteria. Although instructed to maximize reward, observers use suboptimal decision criteria that place greater emphasis on accuracy than is optimal. This study compared objective classifier feedback (the obj ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Biased category payoff matrices engender separate reward and accuracymaximizing decision criteria. Although instructed to maximize reward, observers use suboptimal decision criteria that place greater emphasis on accuracy than is optimal. This study compared objective classifier feedback (the objectively correct response) with optimal classifier feedback (the optimal classifier’s response) at two levels of category discriminability when zero or negative costs accompanied incorrect responses for two payoff matrix multiplication factors. Performance was superior for optimal classifier feedback relative to objective classifier feedback for both zero and negative cost conditions, especially when category discriminability was low, but the magnitude of the optimal classifier advantage was approximately equal for zero and negative cost conditions. The optimal classifier feedback performance advantage did not interact with the payoff matrix multiplication factor. Modelbased analyses suggested that the weight placed on
A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Effects of Simultaneous BaseRate and Payoff . . .
, 2003
"... ..."
A test of the optimal classifier's independence . . .
 PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS
, 2003
"... this article are based on the decision boundmodel in Equation 5. Specifically, each model includes one "noise" parameter that represents the sum of perceptual and criterial noise (Ashby, 1992a; Maddox& Ashby, 1993). Each model assumes that the observer has accurate knowledge of the category structur ..."
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this article are based on the decision boundmodel in Equation 5. Specifically, each model includes one "noise" parameter that represents the sum of perceptual and criterial noise (Ashby, 1992a; Maddox& Ashby, 1993). Each model assumes that the observer has accurate knowledge of the category structures [i.e., l o (x pi )]. To ensure that this was a reasonable assumption, each observer completed a number of baseline trials and was required to meet a stringent performance criterion (see Method section). Finally,each model allows for suboptimal decision criterion placement where the decision criterion is determined from the flatmaxima hypothesis, the COBRA hypothesis, or both, following Equation 6. To determine whether the flatmaxima and COBRA hypothesesare important in accountingfor each observer's data, we developed four models. Each model makes different assumptions about the k r and w values used. The nested structure of the models is represented in Figure 5, with each arrow pointing to a more general model and Figure 4. Decision criterion [ln( b )] predicted from the flatmaxima hypothesisplotted against the decision criterion [ln( b )] predicted from the independence assumption of the optimal classifier for the six simultaneous baserate/payoff conditions. (A) 2:1B/2:1P condition. (B) 3:1B/3:1P condition
doi: 10.3758/PBR.15.3.465 Theoretical and Review Articles
"... In signal detection theory (SDT), responses are governed by perceptual noise and a flexible decision criterion. Recent criticisms of SDT (see, e.g., Balakrishnan, 1999) have identified violations of its assumptions, and researchers have suggested that SDT fundamentally misrepresents perceptual and d ..."
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In signal detection theory (SDT), responses are governed by perceptual noise and a flexible decision criterion. Recent criticisms of SDT (see, e.g., Balakrishnan, 1999) have identified violations of its assumptions, and researchers have suggested that SDT fundamentally misrepresents perceptual and decision processes. We hypothesize that, instead, these violations of SDT stem from decision noise: the inability to use deterministic response criteria. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we present a simple extension of SDT—the decision noise model—with which we demonstrate that shifts in a decision criterion can be masked by decision noise. In addition, we propose a new statistic that can help identify whether the violations of SDT stem from perceptual or from decision processes. The results of a stimulus classification experiment—together with model fits to past experiments—show that decision noise substantially affects performance. These findings suggest that decision noise is important across a wide range of tasks and needs to be better understood in order to accurately measure perceptual processes. Signal detection theory (SDT) has become a prominent and useful tool for analyzing performance across a wide spectrum of psychological tasks, from singlecell recordings and perceptual discrimination to highlevel categorization, medical decision making, and memory tasks. The utility of
DOI 10.3758/s1342001100159 The criterioncalibration model of cue interaction in contingency judgments
"... that cue interaction effects in human contingency judgments reflect processing that occurs after the acquisition of information. This finding is in conflict with a broad class of theories. We present a new postacquisition model, the criterioncalibration model, that describes cue interaction effects ..."
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that cue interaction effects in human contingency judgments reflect processing that occurs after the acquisition of information. This finding is in conflict with a broad class of theories. We present a new postacquisition model, the criterioncalibration model, that describes cue interaction effects as involving shifts in a report criterion. The model accounts for the Siegel et al. data and outperforms the only other postacquisition model of cue interaction, Stout and Miller’s (2007) SOCR model. We present new data from an experiment designed to evaluate a prediction of the two models regarding reciprocal cue interaction effects. The new data provide further support for the criterioncalibration model.