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70
Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm
 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
, 1987
"... We present a new algorithm, called marching cubes, that creates triangle models of constant density surfaces from 3D medical data. Using a divideandconquer approach to generate interslice connectivity, we create a case table that defines triangle topology. The algorithm processes the 3D medical d ..."
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Cited by 2085 (4 self)
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We present a new algorithm, called marching cubes, that creates triangle models of constant density surfaces from 3D medical data. Using a divideandconquer approach to generate interslice connectivity, we create a case table that defines triangle topology. The algorithm processes the 3D medical data in scanline order and calculates triangle vertices using linear interpolation. We find the gradient of the original data, normalize it, and use it as a basis for shading the models. The detail in images produced from the generated surface models is the result of maintaining the interslice connectivity, surface data, and gradient information present in the original 3D data. Results from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) illustrate the quality and functionality of marching cubes. We also discuss improvements that decrease processing time and add solid modeling capabilities.
Volume Rendering
, 1988
"... A technique for rendering images Of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The ..."
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Cited by 382 (2 self)
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A technique for rendering images Of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The algorithms used are designed to avoid artifacts caused by aliasing and quantization and can be efficiently implemented on an image computer. Images from a variety of applications are shown.
A physically based approach to 2D shape blending
 Computer Graphics
, 1992
"... This paper presents a new afgorithm for smoothly blending between two 2D polygonal shapes. The algorithm is based on a physical model wherein one of the shapes is considered to be constructed of wire, and a solution is found whereby the first shape can be bent and/or stretched into the second shape ..."
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Cited by 132 (3 self)
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This paper presents a new afgorithm for smoothly blending between two 2D polygonal shapes. The algorithm is based on a physical model wherein one of the shapes is considered to be constructed of wire, and a solution is found whereby the first shape can be bent and/or stretched into the second shape with a minimum amount of work. The resulting solution tends to associate regions on the two shapes which look alike. If the two polYgons have m and n vertices respectively, the afgorithm is O(mn). The algorithm avoids local shape inversions in whkh intermediate
Arbitrary topology shape reconstruction from planar cross sections
 Graphical Models and Image Processing
, 1996
"... In computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging, reconstruction of the 3D object from the 2D scalarvalued slices obtained by the imaging system is di cult because of the large spacings between the 2D slices. The aliasing that results from this undersampling in the directio ..."
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Cited by 68 (10 self)
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In computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging, reconstruction of the 3D object from the 2D scalarvalued slices obtained by the imaging system is di cult because of the large spacings between the 2D slices. The aliasing that results from this undersampling in the direction orthogonal to the slices leads to two problems known as the correspondence problem and the tiling problem. A third problem, known as the branching problem, arises because of the structure of the objects being imaged in these applications. Existing reconstruction algorithms typically address only one or two of these problems. In this paper, we approach all three of these problems simultaneously. This is accomplished by imposing a set of three constraints on the reconstructed surface and then deriving precise correspondence and tiling rules from these constraints. The constraints ensure that the regions tiled by these rules obey physical constructs and have a natural appearance. Regions which cannot be tiled by these rules without breaking one or more constraints are tiled with their medial axis (edge Voronoi diagram). Our implementation of the above approach generates triangles of 3D isosurfaces from input which is either a set of contour data or a volume of image slices. Results obtained with synthetic and actual medical data are presented. There are still speci c cases in which our new approach can generate distorted results, but these cases are much less likely to occur than those which cause distortions in other tiling approaches. 2 1
PiecewiseLinear Interpolation between Polygonal Slices
 Computer Vision and Image Understanding
, 1994
"... In this paper we present a new technique for piecewiselinear surface reconstruction from a series of parallel polygonal crosssections. This is an important problem in medical imaging, surface reconstruction from topographic data, and other applications. We reduce the problem, as in most previous wo ..."
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Cited by 65 (12 self)
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In this paper we present a new technique for piecewiselinear surface reconstruction from a series of parallel polygonal crosssections. This is an important problem in medical imaging, surface reconstruction from topographic data, and other applications. We reduce the problem, as in most previous works, to a series of problems of piecewiselinear interpolation between each pair of successive slices. Our algorithm uses a partial curve matching technique for matching parts of the contours, an optimal triangulation of 3D polygons for resolving the unmatched parts, and a minimum spanning tree heuristic for interpolating between non simply connected regions. Unlike previous attempts at solving this problem, our algorithm seems to handle successfully any kind of data. It allows multiple contours in each slice, with any hierarchy of contour nesting, and avoids the introduction of counterintuitive bridges between contours, proposed in some earlier papers to handle interpolation between multi...
A Survey of Algorithms for Volume Visualization
, 1992
"... Many computer graphics programmers are working in the area of scientific visualization. One of the most interesting and fastgrowing areas in scientific visualization is volume visualization. Volume visualization systems are used to create highquality images from scalar and vector datasets defined ..."
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Cited by 29 (2 self)
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Many computer graphics programmers are working in the area of scientific visualization. One of the most interesting and fastgrowing areas in scientific visualization is volume visualization. Volume visualization systems are used to create highquality images from scalar and vector datasets defined on multidimensional grids, usually for the purpose of gaining insight into a scientific problem. Most volume visualization techniques are based on one of about five foundation algorithms. These algorithms, and the background necessary to understand them, are described here. Pointers to more detailed descriptions, further reading, and advanced techniques are also given.
The Interpretation of Fuzziness
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
, 1996
"... From laserscanned data to feature human model: a system based on ..."
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Cited by 25 (13 self)
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From laserscanned data to feature human model: a system based on
Geometric Methods for Vessel Visualization and Quantification  A Survey
 IN GEOMETRIC MODELLING FOR SCIENTIFIC VISUALIZATION
, 2002
"... ... This paper surveys several geometric methods to solve basic visualization and quantification problems like centerline computation, boundary detection, projection techniques, and geometric model generation. ..."
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Cited by 23 (1 self)
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... This paper surveys several geometric methods to solve basic visualization and quantification problems like centerline computation, boundary detection, projection techniques, and geometric model generation.
Applications of Computational Geometry to Geographic Information Systems
"... Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Map Data Modeling 4 2.1 TwoDimensional Spatial Entities and Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Raster and Vector Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Subdivisions as Cell Complexes . . . . . . . ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Map Data Modeling 4 2.1 TwoDimensional Spatial Entities and Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Raster and Vector Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Subdivisions as Cell Complexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.4 Topological Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.5 Multiresolution Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Map data processing 8 3.1 Spatial Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 Map Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3 Geometric Problems in Map Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.4 Map Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Efficient Methods for Isoline Extraction from a Digital Elevation Model based on Triangulated Irregular Networks
 University of Utrecht, the Netherlands
, 1994
"... A data structure is presented to store a triangulated irregular network digital elevation model, from which isolines (contour lines) can be extracted very efficiently. If the network is based on n points, then for any elevation, the isolines can be obtained in O(log n + k) query time, where k is the ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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A data structure is presented to store a triangulated irregular network digital elevation model, from which isolines (contour lines) can be extracted very efficiently. If the network is based on n points, then for any elevation, the isolines can be obtained in O(log n + k) query time, where k is the number of line segments that form the isolines. This compares favorably with O(n) time by straightforward computation. When a structured representation of the isolines is needed, the same query time applies. For a fully topological representation (with adjacency), the query requires additional O(c log c) or O(c log log n) time, where c is the number of connected components of isolines. In all three cases, the required data structure has only linear size.