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53
Approximate Nearest Neighbors: Towards Removing the Curse of Dimensionality
, 1998
"... The nearest neighbor problem is the following: Given a set of n points P = fp 1 ; : : : ; png in some metric space X, preprocess P so as to efficiently answer queries which require finding the point in P closest to a query point q 2 X. We focus on the particularly interesting case of the ddimens ..."
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Cited by 715 (33 self)
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The nearest neighbor problem is the following: Given a set of n points P = fp 1 ; : : : ; png in some metric space X, preprocess P so as to efficiently answer queries which require finding the point in P closest to a query point q 2 X. We focus on the particularly interesting case of the ddimensional Euclidean space where X = ! d under some l p norm. Despite decades of effort, the current solutions are far from satisfactory; in fact, for large d, in theory or in practice, they provide little improvement over the bruteforce algorithm which compares the query point to each data point. Of late, there has been some interest in the approximate nearest neighbors problem, which is: Find a point p 2 P that is an fflapproximate nearest neighbor of the query q in that for all p 0 2 P , d(p; q) (1 + ffl)d(p 0 ; q). We present two algorithmic results for the approximate version that significantly improve the known bounds: (a) preprocessing cost polynomial in n and d, and a trul...
Efficient Search for Approximate Nearest Neighbor in High Dimensional Spaces
, 1998
"... We address the problem of designing data structures that allow efficient search for approximate nearest neighbors. More specifically, given a database consisting of a set of vectors in some high dimensional Euclidean space, we want to construct a spaceefficient data structure that would allow us to ..."
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Cited by 188 (9 self)
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We address the problem of designing data structures that allow efficient search for approximate nearest neighbors. More specifically, given a database consisting of a set of vectors in some high dimensional Euclidean space, we want to construct a spaceefficient data structure that would allow us to search, given a query vector, for the closest or nearly closest vector in the database. We also address this problem when distances are measured by the L 1 norm, and in the Hamming cube. Significantly improving and extending recent results of Kleinberg, we construct data structures whose size is polynomial in the size of the database, and search algorithms that run in time nearly linear or nearly quadratic in the dimension (depending on the case; the extra factors are polylogarithmic in the size of the database). Computer Science Department, Technion  IIT, Haifa 32000, Israel. Email: eyalk@cs.technion.ac.il y Bell Communications Research, MCC1C365B, 445 South Street, Morristown, NJ ...
Mesh Generation And Optimal Triangulation
, 1992
"... We survey the computational geometry relevant to finite element mesh generation. We especially focus on optimal triangulations of geometric domains in two and threedimensions. An optimal triangulation is a partition of the domain into triangles or tetrahedra, that is best according to some cri ..."
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Cited by 180 (8 self)
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We survey the computational geometry relevant to finite element mesh generation. We especially focus on optimal triangulations of geometric domains in two and threedimensions. An optimal triangulation is a partition of the domain into triangles or tetrahedra, that is best according to some criterion that measures the size, shape, or number of triangles. We discuss algorithms both for the optimization of triangulations on a fixed set of vertices and for the placement of new vertices (Steiner points). We briefly survey the heuristic algorithms used in some practical mesh generators.
Two Algorithms for NearestNeighbor Search in High Dimensions
, 1997
"... Representing data as points in a highdimensional space, so as to use geometric methods for indexing, is an algorithmic technique with a wide array of uses. It is central to a number of areas such as information retrieval, pattern recognition, and statistical data analysis; many of the problems aris ..."
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Cited by 169 (0 self)
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Representing data as points in a highdimensional space, so as to use geometric methods for indexing, is an algorithmic technique with a wide array of uses. It is central to a number of areas such as information retrieval, pattern recognition, and statistical data analysis; many of the problems arising in these applications can involve several hundred or several thousand dimensions. We consider the nearestneighbor problem for ddimensional Euclidean space: we wish to preprocess a database of n points so that given a query point, one can efficiently determine its nearest neighbors in the database. There is a large literature on algorithms for this problem, in both the exact and approximate cases. The more sophisticated algorithms typically achieve a query time that is logarithmic in n at the expense of an exponential dependence on the dimension d; indeed, even the averagecase analysis of heuristics such as kd trees reveals an exponential dependence on d in the query time. In this wor...
Approximate Nearest Neighbor Queries in Fixed Dimensions
, 1993
"... Given a set of n points in ddimensional Euclidean space, S ae E d , and a query point q 2 E d , we wish to determine the nearest neighbor of q, that is, the point of S whose Euclidean distance to q is minimum. The goal is to preprocess the point set S, such that queries can be answered as effic ..."
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Cited by 105 (10 self)
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Given a set of n points in ddimensional Euclidean space, S ae E d , and a query point q 2 E d , we wish to determine the nearest neighbor of q, that is, the point of S whose Euclidean distance to q is minimum. The goal is to preprocess the point set S, such that queries can be answered as efficiently as possible. We assume that the dimension d is a constant independent of n. Although reasonably good solutions to this problem exist when d is small, as d increases the performance of these algorithms degrades rapidly. We present a randomized algorithm for approximate nearest neighbor searching. Given any set of n points S ae E d , and a constant ffl ? 0, we produce a data structure, such that given any query point, a point of S will be reported whose distance from the query point is at most a factor of (1 + ffl) from that of the true nearest neighbor. Our algorithm runs in O(log 3 n) expected time and requires O(n log n) space. The data structure can be built in O(n 2 ) expe...
On Range Searching with Semialgebraic Sets
 DISCRETE COMPUT. GEOM
, 1994
"... Let P be a set of n points in R d (where d is a small fixed positive integer), and let \Gamma be a collection of subsets of R d , each of which is defined by a constant number of bounded degree polynomials. We consider the following \Gammarange searching problem: Given P , build a data structur ..."
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Cited by 80 (22 self)
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Let P be a set of n points in R d (where d is a small fixed positive integer), and let \Gamma be a collection of subsets of R d , each of which is defined by a constant number of bounded degree polynomials. We consider the following \Gammarange searching problem: Given P , build a data structure for efficient answering of queries of the form `Given a fl 2 \Gamma, count (or report) the points of P lying in fl'. Generalizing the simplex range searching techniques, we give a solution with nearly linear space and preprocessing time and with O(n 1\Gamma1=b+ffi ) query time, where d b 2d \Gamma 3 and ffi ? 0 is an arbitrarily small constant. The actual value of b is related to the problem of partitioning arrangements of algebraic surfaces into constantcomplexity cells. We present some of the applications of \Gammarange searching problem, including improved ray shooting among triangles in R³.
Arrangements and Their Applications
 Handbook of Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... The arrangement of a finite collection of geometric objects is the decomposition of the space into connected cells induced by them. We survey combinatorial and algorithmic properties of arrangements of arcs in the plane and of surface patches in higher dimensions. We present many applications of arr ..."
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Cited by 78 (22 self)
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The arrangement of a finite collection of geometric objects is the decomposition of the space into connected cells induced by them. We survey combinatorial and algorithmic properties of arrangements of arcs in the plane and of surface patches in higher dimensions. We present many applications of arrangements to problems in motion planning, visualization, range searching, molecular modeling, and geometric optimization. Some results involving planar arrangements of arcs have been presented in a companion chapter in this book, and are extended in this chapter to higher dimensions. Work by P.A. was supported by Army Research Office MURI grant DAAH049610013, by a Sloan fellowship, by an NYI award, and by a grant from the U.S.Israeli Binational Science Foundation. Work by M.S. was supported by NSF Grants CCR9122103 and CCR9311127, by a MaxPlanck Research Award, and by grants from the U.S.Israeli Binational Science Foundation, the Israel Science Fund administered by the Israeli Ac...
Range Searching
, 1996
"... Range searching is one of the central problems in computational geometry, because it arises in many applications and a wide variety of geometric problems can be formulated as a rangesearching problem. A typical rangesearching problem has the following form. Let S be a set of n points in R d , an ..."
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Cited by 70 (1 self)
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Range searching is one of the central problems in computational geometry, because it arises in many applications and a wide variety of geometric problems can be formulated as a rangesearching problem. A typical rangesearching problem has the following form. Let S be a set of n points in R d , and let R be a family of subsets; elements of R are called ranges . We wish to preprocess S into a data structure so that for a query range R, the points in S " R can be reported or counted efficiently. Typical examples of ranges include rectangles, halfspaces, simplices, and balls. If we are only interested in answering a single query, it can be done in linear time, using linear space, by simply checking for each point p 2 S whether p lies in the query range.
On approximating the depth and related problems
 SIAM J. Comput
"... We study the question of finding a deepest point in an arrangement of regions, and provide a fast algorithm for this problem using random sampling, showing it sufficient to solve this problem when the deepest point is shallow. This implies, among other results, a fast algorithm for solving linear pr ..."
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Cited by 63 (11 self)
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We study the question of finding a deepest point in an arrangement of regions, and provide a fast algorithm for this problem using random sampling, showing it sufficient to solve this problem when the deepest point is shallow. This implies, among other results, a fast algorithm for solving linear programming with violations approximately. We also use this technique to approximate the disk covering the largest number of red points, while avoiding all the blue points, given two such sets in the plane. Using similar techniques imply that approximate range counting queries have roughly the same time and space complexity as emptiness range queries. 1