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206
Boosting a Weak Learning Algorithm By Majority
, 1995
"... We present an algorithm for improving the accuracy of algorithms for learning binary concepts. The improvement is achieved by combining a large number of hypotheses, each of which is generated by training the given learning algorithm on a different set of examples. Our algorithm is based on ideas pr ..."
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Cited by 483 (15 self)
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We present an algorithm for improving the accuracy of algorithms for learning binary concepts. The improvement is achieved by combining a large number of hypotheses, each of which is generated by training the given learning algorithm on a different set of examples. Our algorithm is based on ideas presented by Schapire in his paper "The strength of weak learnability", and represents an improvement over his results. The analysis of our algorithm provides general upper bounds on the resources required for learning in Valiant's polynomial PAC learning framework, which are the best general upper bounds known today. We show that the number of hypotheses that are combined by our algorithm is the smallest number possible. Other outcomes of our analysis are results regarding the representational power of threshold circuits, the relation between learnability and compression, and a method for parallelizing PAC learning algorithms. We provide extensions of our algorithms to cases in which the conc...
How to Use Expert Advice
 JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY
, 1997
"... We analyze algorithms that predict a binary value by combining the predictions of several prediction strategies, called experts. Our analysis is for worstcase situations, i.e., we make no assumptions about the way the sequence of bits to be predicted is generated. We measure the performance of the ..."
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Cited by 350 (71 self)
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We analyze algorithms that predict a binary value by combining the predictions of several prediction strategies, called experts. Our analysis is for worstcase situations, i.e., we make no assumptions about the way the sequence of bits to be predicted is generated. We measure the performance of the algorithm by the difference between the expected number of mistakes it makes on the bit sequence and the expected number of mistakes made by the best expert on this sequence, where the expectation is taken with respect to the randomization in the predictions. We show that the minimum achievable difference is on the order of the square root of the number of mistakes of the best expert, and we give efficient algorithms that achieve this. Our upper and lower bounds have matching leading constants in most cases. We then show howthis leads to certain kinds of pattern recognition/learning algorithms with performance bounds that improve on the best results currently known in this context. We also compare our analysis to the case in which log loss is used instead of the expected number of mistakes.
Efficient noisetolerant learning from statistical queries
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1998
"... In this paper, we study the problem of learning in the presence of classification noise in the probabilistic learning model of Valiant and its variants. In order to identify the class of “robust” learning algorithms in the most general way, we formalize a new but related model of learning from stat ..."
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Cited by 338 (5 self)
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In this paper, we study the problem of learning in the presence of classification noise in the probabilistic learning model of Valiant and its variants. In order to identify the class of “robust” learning algorithms in the most general way, we formalize a new but related model of learning from statistical queries. Intuitively, in this model, a learning algorithm is forbidden to examine individual examples of the unknown target function, but is given access to an oracle providing estimates of probabilities over the sample space of random examples. One of our main results shows that any class of functions learnable from statistical queries is in fact learnable with classification noise in Valiant’s model, with a noise rate approaching the informationtheoretic barrier of 1/2. We then demonstrate the generality of the statistical query model, showing that practically every class learnable in Valiant’s model and its variants can also be learned in the new model (and thus can be learned in the presence of noise). A notable exception to this statement is the class of parity functions, which we prove is not learnable from statistical queries, and for which no noisetolerant algorithm is known.
Regularization networks and support vector machines
 Advances in Computational Mathematics
, 2000
"... Regularization Networks and Support Vector Machines are techniques for solving certain problems of learning from examples – in particular the regression problem of approximating a multivariate function from sparse data. Radial Basis Functions, for example, are a special case of both regularization a ..."
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Cited by 332 (34 self)
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Regularization Networks and Support Vector Machines are techniques for solving certain problems of learning from examples – in particular the regression problem of approximating a multivariate function from sparse data. Radial Basis Functions, for example, are a special case of both regularization and Support Vector Machines. We review both formulations in the context of Vapnik’s theory of statistical learning which provides a general foundation for the learning problem, combining functional analysis and statistics. The emphasis is on regression: classification is treated as a special case.
Scalesensitive Dimensions, Uniform Convergence, and Learnability
, 1997
"... Learnability in Valiant's PAC learning model has been shown to be strongly related to the existence of uniform laws of large numbers. These laws define a distributionfree convergence property of means to expectations uniformly over classes of random variables. Classes of realvalued functions ..."
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Cited by 225 (1 self)
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Learnability in Valiant's PAC learning model has been shown to be strongly related to the existence of uniform laws of large numbers. These laws define a distributionfree convergence property of means to expectations uniformly over classes of random variables. Classes of realvalued functions enjoying such a property are also known as uniform GlivenkoCantelli classes. In this paper we prove, through a generalization of Sauer's lemma that may be interesting in its own right, a new characterization of uniform GlivenkoCantelli classes. Our characterization yields Dudley, Gin'e, and Zinn's previous characterization as a corollary. Furthermore, it is the first based on a simple combinatorial quantity generalizing the VapnikChervonenkis dimension. We apply this result to obtain the weakest combinatorial condition known to imply PAC learnability in the statistical regression (or "agnostic") framework. Furthermore, we show a characterization of learnability in the probabilistic concept model, solving an open problem posed by Kearns and Schapire. These results show that the accuracy parameter plays a crucial role in determining the effective complexity of the learner's hypothesis class.
Toward efficient agnostic learning
 In Proceedings of the Fifth Annual ACM Workshop on Computational Learning Theory
, 1992
"... Abstract. In this paper we initiate an investigation of generalizations of the Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning model that attempt to significantly weaken the target function assumptions. The ultimate goal in this direction is informally termed agnostic learning, in which we make virtua ..."
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Cited by 219 (7 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we initiate an investigation of generalizations of the Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning model that attempt to significantly weaken the target function assumptions. The ultimate goal in this direction is informally termed agnostic learning, in which we make virtually no assumptions on the target function. The name derives from the fact that as designers of learning algorithms, we give up the belief that Nature (as represented by the target function) has a simple or succinct explanation. We give a number of positive and negative results that provide an initial outline of the possibilities for agnostic learning. Our results include hardness results for the most obvious generalization of the PAC model to an agnostic setting, an efficient and general agnostic learning method based on dynamic programming, relationships between loss functions for agnostic learning, and an algorithm for a learning problem that involves hidden variables.
The Sample Complexity of Pattern Classification With Neural Networks: The Size of the Weights is More Important Than the Size of the Network
, 1997
"... Sample complexity results from computational learning theory, when applied to neural network learning for pattern classification problems, suggest that for good generalization performance the number of training examples should grow at least linearly with the number of adjustable parameters in the ne ..."
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Cited by 203 (16 self)
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Sample complexity results from computational learning theory, when applied to neural network learning for pattern classification problems, suggest that for good generalization performance the number of training examples should grow at least linearly with the number of adjustable parameters in the network. Results in this paper show that if a large neural network is used for a pattern classification problem and the learning algorithm finds a network with small weights that has small squared error on the training patterns, then the generalization performance depends on the size of the weights rather than the number of weights. For example, consider a twolayer feedforward network of sigmoid units, in which the sum of the magnitudes of the weights associated with each unit is bounded by A and the input dimension is n. We show that the misclassification probability is no more than a certain error estimate (that is related to squared error on the training set) plus A³ p (log n)=m (ignori...
Learning to resolve natural language ambiguities: A unified approach
 In Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. 806813. Segond F., Schiller A., Grefenstette & Chanod F.P
, 1998
"... distinct semanticonceptsuch as interest rate and has interest in Math are conflated in ordinary text. We analyze a few of the commonly used statistics based The surrounding context word associations and synand machine learning algorithms for natural language tactic patterns in this case are suffl ..."
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Cited by 176 (83 self)
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distinct semanticonceptsuch as interest rate and has interest in Math are conflated in ordinary text. We analyze a few of the commonly used statistics based The surrounding context word associations and synand machine learning algorithms for natural language tactic patterns in this case are sufflcicnt to identify disambiguation tasks and observe tha they can bc recast as learning linear separators in the feature space. the correct form. Each of the methods makes a priori assumptions, which Many of these arc important standalone problems it employs, given the data, when searching for its hy but even more important is thei role in many applicapothesis. Nevertheless, as we show, it searches a space tions including speech recognition, machine translation, that is as rich as the space of all linear separators. information extraction and intelligent humanmachine We use this to build an argument for a data driven interaction. Most of the ambiguity resolution problems approach which merely searches for a good linear sepa are at the lower level of the natural language inferences rator in the feature space, without further assumptions chain; a wide range and a large number of ambigui
YAGO: A Large Ontology from Wikipedia and WordNet
, 2008
"... This article presents YAGO, a large ontology with high coverage and precision. YAGO has been automatically derived from Wikipedia and WordNet. It comprises entities and relations, and currently contains more than 1.7 million entities and 15 million facts. These include the taxonomic IsA hierarchy a ..."
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Cited by 133 (14 self)
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This article presents YAGO, a large ontology with high coverage and precision. YAGO has been automatically derived from Wikipedia and WordNet. It comprises entities and relations, and currently contains more than 1.7 million entities and 15 million facts. These include the taxonomic IsA hierarchy as well as semantic relations between entities. The facts for YAGO have been extracted from the category system and the infoboxes of Wikipedia and have been combined with taxonomic relations from WordNet. Type checking techniques help us keep YAGO’s precision at 95% – as proven by an extensive evaluation study. YAGO is based on a clean logical model with a decidable consistency. Furthermore, it allows representing nary relations in a natural way while maintaining compatibility with RDFS. A powerful query model facilitates access to YAGO’s data.
On the Boosting Ability of TopDown Decision Tree Learning Algorithms
 In Proceedings of the TwentyEighth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 1995
"... We analyze the performance of topdown algorithms for decision tree learning, such as those employed by the widely used C4.5 and CART software packages. Our main result is a proof that such algorithms are boosting algorithms. By this we mean that if the functions used to label the internal nodes of ..."
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Cited by 98 (6 self)
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We analyze the performance of topdown algorithms for decision tree learning, such as those employed by the widely used C4.5 and CART software packages. Our main result is a proof that such algorithms are boosting algorithms. By this we mean that if the functions used to label the internal nodes of the decision tree can weakly approximate the unknown target function, then the topdown algorithms we study will amplify this weak advantage to build a tree achieving any desired level of accuracy. The bounds we obtain for this amplification show an interesting dependence on the splitting criterion function G used by the topdown algorithm. More precisely, if the functions used to label the internal nodes have error 1=2 \Gamma fl as approximations to the target function, then for the splitting criteria used by CART and C4.5, trees of size (1=ffl) O(1=fl 2 ffl 2 ) and (1=ffl) O(log(1=ffl)=fl 2 ) (respectively) suffice to drive the error below ffl. Thus, small constant advantage over...