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Variations on Algebra: monadicity and generalisations of equational theories
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 2001
"... this paper the author was partially supported by an SERC/EPSRC Advanced Research Fellowship, EPSRC Research grant GR/L54639, and EU Working Group APPSEM ..."
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this paper the author was partially supported by an SERC/EPSRC Advanced Research Fellowship, EPSRC Research grant GR/L54639, and EU Working Group APPSEM
Categorical Term Rewriting: Monads and Modularity
 University of Edinburgh
, 1998
"... Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewriting syste ..."
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Term rewriting systems are widely used throughout computer science as they provide an abstract model of computation while retaining a comparatively simple syntax and semantics. In order to reason within large term rewriting systems, structuring operations are used to build large term rewriting systems from smaller ones. Of particular interest is whether key properties are modular, thatis,ifthe components of a structured term rewriting system satisfy a property, then does the term rewriting system as a whole? A body of literature addresses this problem, but most of the results and proofs depend on strong syntactic conditions and do not easily generalize. Although many specific modularity results are known, a coherent framework which explains the underlying principles behind these results is lacking. This thesis posits that part of the problem is the usual, concrete and syntaxoriented semantics of term rewriting systems, and that a semantics is needed which on the one hand elides unnecessary syntactic details but on the other hand still possesses enough expressive power to model the key concepts arising from
On PropertyLike Structures
, 1997
"... A category may bear many monoidal structures, but (to within a unique isomorphism) only one structure of "category with finite products". To capture such distinctions, we consider on a 2category those 2monads for which algebra structure is essentially unique if it exists, giving a precise mathemat ..."
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A category may bear many monoidal structures, but (to within a unique isomorphism) only one structure of "category with finite products". To capture such distinctions, we consider on a 2category those 2monads for which algebra structure is essentially unique if it exists, giving a precise mathematical definition of "essentially unique" and investigating its consequences. We call such 2monads propertylike. We further consider the more restricted class of fully propertylike 2monads, consisting of those propertylike 2monads for which all 2cells between (even lax) algebra morphisms are algebra 2cells. The consideration of lax morphisms leads us to a new characterization of those monads, studied by Kock and Zoberlein, for which "structure is adjoint to unit", and which we now call laxidempotent 2monads: both these and their colaxidempotent duals are fully propertylike. We end by showing that (at least for finitary 2monads) the classes of propertylikes, fully propertylike...
Monads and Modularity
"... This paper argues that the core of modularity problems is an understanding of how individual components of a large system interact with each other, and that this interaction can be described by a layer structure. We propose a uniform treatment of layers based upon the concept of a monad. The combina ..."
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This paper argues that the core of modularity problems is an understanding of how individual components of a large system interact with each other, and that this interaction can be described by a layer structure. We propose a uniform treatment of layers based upon the concept of a monad. The combination of different systems can be described by the coproduct of monads.
Coalgebraic Monads
, 2002
"... This paper introduces coalgebraic monads as a unified model of term algebras covering fundamental examples such as initial algebras, final coalgebras, rational terms and term graphs. We develop a general method for obtaining finitary coalgebraic monads which allows us to generalise the notion of rat ..."
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This paper introduces coalgebraic monads as a unified model of term algebras covering fundamental examples such as initial algebras, final coalgebras, rational terms and term graphs. We develop a general method for obtaining finitary coalgebraic monads which allows us to generalise the notion of rational term and term graph to categories other than Set. As an application we sketch part of the correctness of the the term graph implementation of functional programming languages.
Lax Naturality Through Enrichment
, 1995
"... We develop the relationship between algebraic structure and monads enriched over the monoidal biclosed category LocOrd l of small locally ordered categories, with closed structure given by Lax(A; B). We state the theorem, give a series of examples, and incorporate an account of sketches and cont ..."
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We develop the relationship between algebraic structure and monads enriched over the monoidal biclosed category LocOrd l of small locally ordered categories, with closed structure given by Lax(A; B). We state the theorem, give a series of examples, and incorporate an account of sketches and contravariance into the theory. This was motivated by C.A.R. Hoare's use of category theoretic structures to model data refinement. 1 Introduction In 1987, C.A.R. Hoare wrote a draft paper, "Data refinement in a categorical setting" [10] in which he used category theory to provide an abstract formalism for his development of data refinement over the previous twenty years [9]. The notion of data refinement is central to the programming method called stepwise refinement proposed by Wirth [19], and gave rise to work on abstract data types such as the IOTA programming system developed by Nakajima, Honda and Nakahara [16]. As Hoare said in [10], there was evidently a unified body of category theo...
Algebras, Coalgebras, Monads and Comonads
, 2001
"... Whilst the relationship between initial algebras and monads is wellunderstood, the relationship between nal coalgebras and comonads is less well explored. This paper shows that the problem is more subtle and that final coalgebras can just as easily form monads as comonads and dually, that initial a ..."
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Whilst the relationship between initial algebras and monads is wellunderstood, the relationship between nal coalgebras and comonads is less well explored. This paper shows that the problem is more subtle and that final coalgebras can just as easily form monads as comonads and dually, that initial algebras form both monads and comonads. In developing these theories we strive to provide them with an associated notion of syntax. In the case of initial algebras and monads this corresponds to the standard notion of algebraic theories consisting of signatures and equations: models of such algebraic theories are precisely the algebras of the representing monad. We attempt to emulate this result for the coalgebraic case by defining a notion cosignature and coequation and then proving the models of this syntax are precisely the coalgebras of the representing comonad.
A 2categories companion
"... Abstract. This paper is a rather informal guide to some of the basic theory of 2categories and bicategories, including notions of limit and colimit, 2dimensional universal algebra, formal category theory, and nerves of bicategories. 1. Overview and basic examples This paper is a rather informal gu ..."
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Abstract. This paper is a rather informal guide to some of the basic theory of 2categories and bicategories, including notions of limit and colimit, 2dimensional universal algebra, formal category theory, and nerves of bicategories. 1. Overview and basic examples This paper is a rather informal guide to some of the basic theory of 2categories and bicategories, including notions of limit and colimit, 2dimensional universal algebra, formal category theory, and nerves of bicategories. As is the way of these things, the choice of topics is somewhat personal. No attempt is made at either rigour or completeness. Nor is it completely introductory: you will not find a definition of bicategory; but then nor will you really need one to read it. In keeping with the philosophy of category theory, the morphisms between bicategories play more of a role than the bicategories themselves. 1.1. The key players. There are bicategories, 2categories, and Catcategories. The latter two are exactly the same (except that strictly speaking a Catcategory should have small homcategories, but that need not concern us here). The first two are nominally different — the 2categories are the strict bicategories, and not every bicategory is strict — but every bicategory is biequivalent to a strict one, and biequivalence is the right general notion of equivalence for bicategories and for 2categories. Nonetheless, the theories of bicategories, 2categories, and Catcategories have rather different flavours.
MCompleteness Is Seldom Monadic Over Graphs
 THEORY APPL. CATEG
, 2000
"... For a set M of graphs the category CatM of all Mcomplete categories and all strictly Mcontinuous functors is known to be monadic over Cat. The question of monadicity of CatM over the category of graphs is known to have an affirmative answer when M specifies either (i) all finite limits, or (ii ..."
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For a set M of graphs the category CatM of all Mcomplete categories and all strictly Mcontinuous functors is known to be monadic over Cat. The question of monadicity of CatM over the category of graphs is known to have an affirmative answer when M specifies either (i) all finite limits, or (ii) all finite products, or (iii) equalizers and terminal objects, or (iv) just terminal objects. We prove that, conversely, these four cases are (essentially) the only cases of monadicity of CatM over the category of graphs, provided that M is a set of finite graphs containing the empty graph.