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Polytypic Values Possess Polykinded Types
, 2000
"... A polytypic value is one that is defined by induction on the structure of types. In Haskell the type structure is described by the socalled kind system, which distinguishes between manifest types like the type of integers and functions on types like the list type constructor. Previous approaches to ..."
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Cited by 107 (20 self)
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A polytypic value is one that is defined by induction on the structure of types. In Haskell the type structure is described by the socalled kind system, which distinguishes between manifest types like the type of integers and functions on types like the list type constructor. Previous approaches to polytypic programming were restricted in that they only allowed to parameterize values by types of one fixed kind. In this paper we show how to define values that are indexed by types of arbitrary kinds. It appears that these polytypic values possess types that are indexed by kinds. We present several examples that demonstrate that the additional exibility is useful in practice. One paradigmatic example is the mapping function, which describes the functorial action on arrows. A single polytypic definition yields mapping functions for datatypes of arbitrary kinds including first and higherorder functors. Polytypic values enjoy polytypic properties. Using kindindexed logical relations we prove...
Generic programming: An introduction
 3rd International Summer School on Advanced Functional Programming
, 1999
"... ..."
Dependencystyle Generic Haskell
, 2003
"... Generic Haskell is an extension of Haskell that supports the construction of generic programs. During the development of several applications, such as an XML editor and compressor, we encountered a number of limitations with the existing (Classic) Generic Haskell language, as implemented by the c ..."
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Cited by 68 (22 self)
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Generic Haskell is an extension of Haskell that supports the construction of generic programs. During the development of several applications, such as an XML editor and compressor, we encountered a number of limitations with the existing (Classic) Generic Haskell language, as implemented by the current Generic Haskell compiler. Specifically,
A Typed Pattern Calculus
 ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst
, 1996
"... The theory of programming with patternmatching function definitions has been studied mainly in the framework of firstorder rewrite systems. We present a typed functional calculus that emphasizes the strong connection between the structure of whole pattern definitions and their types. In this calcu ..."
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Cited by 66 (15 self)
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The theory of programming with patternmatching function definitions has been studied mainly in the framework of firstorder rewrite systems. We present a typed functional calculus that emphasizes the strong connection between the structure of whole pattern definitions and their types. In this calculus typechecking guarantees the absence of runtime errors caused by nonexhaustive patternmatching definitions. Its operational semantics is deterministic in a natural way, without the imposition of adhoc solutions such as clause order or "best fit". In the spirit of the CurryHoward isomorphism, we design the calculus as a computational interpretation of the Gentzen sequent proofs for the intuitionistic propositional logic. We prove the basic properties connecting typing and evaluation: subject reduction and strong normalization. We believe that this calculus offers a rational reconstruction of the patternmatching features found in successful functional languages. CNRS and Laboratoire...
TypeIndexed Data Types
 SCIENCE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
, 2004
"... A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show , read , and ` '. More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, patt ..."
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Cited by 59 (21 self)
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A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show , read , and ` '. More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, pattern matching, unification, rewriting, and structure editing. For each of these problems, we not only have to define polytypic functionality, but also a typeindexed data type: a data type that is constructed in a generic way from an argument data type. For example, in the case of digital searching we have to define a search tree type by induction on the structure of the type of search keys. This paper shows how to define typeindexed data types, discusses several examples of typeindexed data types, and shows how to specialize typeindexed data types. The approach has been implemented in Generic Haskell, a generic programming extension of the functional language Haskell.
Calculate Polytypically!
 In PLILP'96, volume 1140 of LNCS
, 1996
"... A polytypic function definition is a function definition that is parametrised with a datatype. It embraces a class of algorithms. As an example we define a simple polytypic "crush" combinator that can be used to calculate polytypically. The ability to define functions polytypically adds another leve ..."
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Cited by 41 (3 self)
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A polytypic function definition is a function definition that is parametrised with a datatype. It embraces a class of algorithms. As an example we define a simple polytypic "crush" combinator that can be used to calculate polytypically. The ability to define functions polytypically adds another level of flexibility in the reusability of programming idioms and in the design of libraries of interoperable components.
Generic Downwards Accumulations
 Science of Computer Programming
, 2000
"... . A downwards accumulation is a higherorder operation that distributes information downwards through a data structure, from the root towards the leaves. The concept was originally introduced in an ad hoc way for just a couple of kinds of tree. We generalize the concept to an arbitrary regular d ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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. A downwards accumulation is a higherorder operation that distributes information downwards through a data structure, from the root towards the leaves. The concept was originally introduced in an ad hoc way for just a couple of kinds of tree. We generalize the concept to an arbitrary regular datatype; the resulting denition is coinductive. 1 Introduction The notion of scans or accumulations on lists is well known, and has proved very fruitful for expressing and calculating with programs involving lists [4]. Gibbons [7, 8] generalizes the notion of accumulation to various kinds of tree; that generalization too has proved fruitful, underlying the derivations of a number of tree algorithms, such as the parallel prex algorithm for prex sums [15, 8], Reingold and Tilford's algorithm for drawing trees tidily [21, 9], and algorithms for query evaluation in structured text [16, 23]. There are two varieties of accumulation on lists: leftwards and rightwards. Leftwards accumulation ...
When Do Datatypes Commute?
 Category Theory and Computer Science, 7th International Conference, volume 1290 of LNCS
, 1997
"... Polytypic programs are programs that are parameterised by type constructors (like List), unlike polymorphic programs which are parameterised by types (like Int). In this paper we formulate precisely the polytypic programming problem of "commuting " two datatypes. The precise formulation involves ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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Polytypic programs are programs that are parameterised by type constructors (like List), unlike polymorphic programs which are parameterised by types (like Int). In this paper we formulate precisely the polytypic programming problem of "commuting " two datatypes. The precise formulation involves a novel notion of higher order polymorphism. We demonstrate via a number of examples the relevance and interest of the problem, and we show that all "regular datatypes" (the sort of datatypes that one can define in a functional programming language) do indeed commute according to our specification. The framework we use is the theory of allegories, a combination of category theory with the pointfree relation calculus. 1 Polytypism The ability to abstract is vital to success in computer programming. At the macro level of requirements engineering the successful designer is the one able to abstract from the particular wishes of a few clients a general purpose product that can capture a l...