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204
A Tutorial for Competent Memetic Algorithms: Model, Taxonomy And Design Issues
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
"... The combination of Evolutionary algorithms with local search was named "Memetic Algorithms" (MAs) in [1]. These methods are inspired by models of natural systems that combine the evolutionary adaptation of a population with individual learning within the lifetimes of its members. Additionally, MAs a ..."
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Cited by 69 (8 self)
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The combination of Evolutionary algorithms with local search was named "Memetic Algorithms" (MAs) in [1]. These methods are inspired by models of natural systems that combine the evolutionary adaptation of a population with individual learning within the lifetimes of its members. Additionally, MAs are inspired by Richard Dawkin's concept of a meme, which represents a unit of cultural evolution that can exhibit local refinement [2]. In the case of MAs "memes" refer to the strategies (e.g. local refinement, perturbation or constructive methods, etc) that are employed to improve individuals. In this paper we review some works on the application of MAs to well known combinatorial optimisation problems, and place them in a framework defined by a general syntactic model. This model provides us with a classification scheme based on a computable index D, which facilitates algorithmic comparisons and suggests areas for future research. Also, by having an abstract model for this class of metaheuristics it is possible to explore their design space and better understand their behaviour from a theoretical standpoint. We illustrate the theoretical and practical relevance of this model and taxonomy for MAs in the context of a discussion of important design issues that must be addressed to produce effective and efficient Memetic Algorithms.
Hierarchical BOA Solves Ising Spin Glasses and MAXSAT
 In Proc. of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 2003), number 2724 in LNCS
, 2003
"... Theoretical and empirical evidence exists that the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm (hBOA) can solve challenging hierarchical problems and anything easier. This paper applies hBOA to two important classes of realworld problems: Ising spinglass systems and maximum satis ability (MAX ..."
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Cited by 46 (17 self)
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Theoretical and empirical evidence exists that the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm (hBOA) can solve challenging hierarchical problems and anything easier. This paper applies hBOA to two important classes of realworld problems: Ising spinglass systems and maximum satis ability (MAXSAT). The paper shows how easy it is to apply hBOA to realworld optimization problems. The results indicate that hBOA is capable of solving enormously dicult problems that cannot be solved by other optimizers and still provide competitive or better performance than problemspeci c approaches on other problems. The results thus con rm that hBOA is a practical, robust, and scalable technique for solving challenging realworld problems.
TimeAware Test Suite Prioritization
, 2006
"... Regression test prioritization is often performed in a time constrained execution environment in which testing only occurs for a fixed time period. For example, many organizations rely upon nightly building and regression testing of their applications every time source code changes are committed to ..."
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Cited by 46 (2 self)
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Regression test prioritization is often performed in a time constrained execution environment in which testing only occurs for a fixed time period. For example, many organizations rely upon nightly building and regression testing of their applications every time source code changes are committed to a version control repository. This paper presents a regression test prioritization technique that uses a genetic algorithm to reorder test suites in light of testing time constraints. Experiment results indicate that our prioritization approach frequently yields higher average percentage of faults detected (APFD) values, for two case study applications, when basic block level coverage is used instead of method level coverage. The experiments also reveal fundamental tradeoffs in the performance of timeaware prioritization. This paper shows that our prioritization technique is appropriate for many regression testing environments and explains how the baseline approach can be extended to operate in additional time constrained testing circumstances.
Populationbased incremental learning with memory scheme for changing environments
 in Proc. 2005 Genetic Evol. Comput. Conf., 2005
"... Abstract—In recent years, interest in studying evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for dynamic optimization problems (DOPs) has grown due to its importance in realworld applications. Several approaches, such as the memory and multiple population schemes, have been developed for EAs to address dynamic pro ..."
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Cited by 46 (26 self)
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Abstract—In recent years, interest in studying evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for dynamic optimization problems (DOPs) has grown due to its importance in realworld applications. Several approaches, such as the memory and multiple population schemes, have been developed for EAs to address dynamic problems. This paper investigates the application of the memory scheme for populationbased incremental learning (PBIL) algorithms, a class of EAs, for DOPs. A PBILspecific associative memory scheme, which stores best solutions as well as corresponding environmental information in the memory, is investigated to improve its adaptability in dynamic environments. In this paper, the interactions between the memory scheme and random immigrants, multipopulation, and restart schemes for PBILs in dynamic environments are investigated. In order to better test the performance of memory schemes for PBILs and other EAs in dynamic environments, this paper also proposes a dynamic environment generator that can systematically generate dynamic environments of different difficulty with respect to memory schemes. Using this generator, a series of dynamic environments are generated and experiments are carried out to compare the performance of investigated algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed memory scheme is efficient for PBILs in dynamic environments and also indicate that different interactions exist between the memory scheme and random immigrants, multipopulation schemes for PBILs in different dynamic environments. Index Terms—Associative memory scheme, dynamic optimization problems (DOPs), immune systembased genetic algorithm (ISGA), memoryenhanced genetic algorithm, multipopulation scheme, populationbased incremental learning (PBIL), random immigrants.
Rulebased Evolutionary Online Learning Systems: LEARNING BOUNDS, CLASSIFICATION, AND PREDICTION
, 2004
"... Rulebased evolutionary online learning systems, often referred to as Michiganstyle learning classifier systems (LCSs), were proposed nearly thirty years ago (Holland, 1976; Holland, 1977) originally calling them cognitive systems. LCSs combine the strength of reinforcement learning with the genera ..."
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Cited by 41 (9 self)
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Rulebased evolutionary online learning systems, often referred to as Michiganstyle learning classifier systems (LCSs), were proposed nearly thirty years ago (Holland, 1976; Holland, 1977) originally calling them cognitive systems. LCSs combine the strength of reinforcement learning with the generalization capabilities of genetic algorithms promising a flexible, online generalizing, solely reinforcement dependent learning system. However, despite several initial successful applications of LCSs and their interesting relations with animal learning and cognition, understanding of the systems remained somewhat obscured. Questions concerning learning complexity or convergence remained unanswered. Performance in different problem types, problem structures, concept spaces, and hypothesis spaces stayed nearly unpredictable. This thesis has the following three major objectives: (1) to establish a facetwise theory approach for LCSs that promotes system analysis, understanding, and design; (2) to analyze, evaluate, and enhance the XCS classifier system (Wilson, 1995) by the means of the facetwise approach establishing a fundamental XCS learning theory; (3) to identify both the major advantages of an LCSbased learning approach as well as the most promising potential application areas. Achieving these three objectives leads to a rigorous understanding
Probabilistic Model Building and Competent Genetic Programming
 GENETIC PROGRAMMING THEORY AND PRACTISE, CHAPTER 13
, 2003
"... This paper describes a probabilistic model building genetic programming (PMBGP) developed based on the extended compact genetic algorithm (eCGA). Unlike traditional genetic programming, which use fixed recombination operators, the proposed PMBGA adapts linkages. The proposed algorithms... ..."
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Cited by 39 (10 self)
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This paper describes a probabilistic model building genetic programming (PMBGP) developed based on the extended compact genetic algorithm (eCGA). Unlike traditional genetic programming, which use fixed recombination operators, the proposed PMBGA adapts linkages. The proposed algorithms...
Designing competent mutation operators via probabilistic model building of neighborhoods
 In Deb, K., & et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO2004), Part II, LNCS 3103
, 2004
"... This paper presents a competent selectomutative genetic algorithm (GA), that adapts linkage and solves hard problems quickly, reliably, and accurately. A probabilistic model building process is used to automatically identify key building blocks (BBs) of the search problem. The mutation operator uses ..."
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Cited by 31 (21 self)
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This paper presents a competent selectomutative genetic algorithm (GA), that adapts linkage and solves hard problems quickly, reliably, and accurately. A probabilistic model building process is used to automatically identify key building blocks (BBs) of the search problem. The mutation operator uses the probabilistic model of linkage groups to find the best among competing building blocks. The competent selectomutative GA successfully solves additively separable problems of bounded difficulty, requiring only subquadratic number of function evaluations. The results show that for additively separable problems the probabilistic model building BBwise mutation scales as O(2 k m 1.5), and requires O ( √ k log m) less function evaluations than its selectorecombinative counterpart, confirming theoretical results reported elsewhere (Sastry & Goldberg, 2004). 1
Analysis and Improvement of Fitness Exploitation in XCS: Bounding Models, Tournament Selection, and Bilateral Accuracy
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 2003
"... The evolutionary learning mechanism in XCS strongly depends on its accuracybased fitness approach. The approach is meant to result in an evolutionary drive from classifiers of low accuracy to those of high accuracy. Since, given inaccuracy, lower specificity often corresponds to lower accuracy fitn ..."
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Cited by 28 (17 self)
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The evolutionary learning mechanism in XCS strongly depends on its accuracybased fitness approach. The approach is meant to result in an evolutionary drive from classifiers of low accuracy to those of high accuracy. Since, given inaccuracy, lower specificity often corresponds to lower accuracy fitness pressure most often also results in a pressure towards higher specificity. Moreover
Let’s get ready to rumble: Crossover versus mutation head to head
 In GECCO ’04: Proc. of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference
, 2004
"... This paper analyzes the relative advantages between crossover and mutation on a class of deterministic and stochastic additively separable problems. This study assumes that the recombination and mutation operators have the knowledge of the building blocks (BBs) and effectively exchange or search amo ..."
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Cited by 25 (19 self)
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This paper analyzes the relative advantages between crossover and mutation on a class of deterministic and stochastic additively separable problems. This study assumes that the recombination and mutation operators have the knowledge of the building blocks (BBs) and effectively exchange or search among competing BBs. Facetwise models of convergence time and population sizing have been used to determine the scalability of each algorithm. The analysis shows that for additively separable deterministic problems, the BBwise mutation is more efficient than crossover, while the crossover outperforms the mutation on additively separable problems perturbed with additive Gaussian noise. The results show that the speedup of using BBwise mutation on deterministic problems is O ( √ k log m), where k is the BB size, and m is the number of BBs. Likewise, the speedup of using crossover on stochastic problems with fixed noise variance is O(m √ k / logm). 1
Using Genetic Algorithms for
 Concept Learning, Machine Learning
, 1993
"... Abstract. Current Genetic Algorithms can efficiently address orderk separable problems, in which the order of the linkage is restricted to a low value k. Outside this class, there exist hierarchical problems that cannot be addressed by current genetic algorithms, yet can be addressed efficiently in ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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Abstract. Current Genetic Algorithms can efficiently address orderk separable problems, in which the order of the linkage is restricted to a low value k. Outside this class, there exist hierarchical problems that cannot be addressed by current genetic algorithms, yet can be addressed efficiently in principle by exploiting hierarchy. We delineate the class of hierarchical problems, and describe a framework for Hierarchical Genetic Algorithms. Based on this outline for algorithms, we investigate under what conditions hierarchical problems may be solved efficiently. Sufficient conditions are provided under which hierarchical problems can be addressed in polynomial time. The analysis points to the importance of efficient sampling techniques that assess the quality of module settings. 1