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186
Statistical Characteristics and Multiplexing of MPEG Streams
 in Proceedings of IEEE Infocom ’95
, 1995
"... This paper presents a study of the statistical characteristics and multiplexing of VariableBitRate (VBR) MPEGcoded video streams. Our results are based on 23 minutes of video obtained from the entertainment movie, The Wizard of Oz. The experimental setup which was used to capture, digitize, and c ..."
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Cited by 59 (7 self)
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This paper presents a study of the statistical characteristics and multiplexing of VariableBitRate (VBR) MPEGcoded video streams. Our results are based on 23 minutes of video obtained from the entertainment movie, The Wizard of Oz. The experimental setup which was used to capture, digitize, and compress the video stream is described. Although the study is conducted at the frame level (as opposed to the slice level), it is observed that the interframe correlation structure for the framesize sequence involves complicated forms of pseudoperiodicity that are mainly affected by the compression pattern of the sequence. A simple model for an MPEG traffic source is developed in which frames are generated according to the compression pattern of the original captured video stream. The number of cells per frame is fitted by a lognormal distribution. Simulations are used to study the performance of an ATM multiplexer for MPEG streams. 1 Introduction Video traffic is expected to comprise th...
Point Process Approaches for Modeling and Analysis of SelfSimilar Traffic: Part II  Applications
, 1997
"... In previous work [24], Fractal Point Processes (FPPs) have been proposed as novel tools for understanding, modeling and analyzing diverse types of selfsimilar traffic behavior. We apply the FPP models in the context of network traffic modeling and performance analysis. Two qualitatively different f ..."
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Cited by 59 (8 self)
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In previous work [24], Fractal Point Processes (FPPs) have been proposed as novel tools for understanding, modeling and analyzing diverse types of selfsimilar traffic behavior. We apply the FPP models in the context of network traffic modeling and performance analysis. Two qualitatively different fractal data sets (Bellcore Ethernet traces) are characterized by FPP models. Comparison of modeldriven and tracedriven queueing simulation results show that the matched models yield close agreement with the traces over a wide range of system parameters. We also show that under suitable conditions, the FPP models yield Gaussian processes. Queueing simulation shows that the FPP models can be computationally efficient alternatives for generating fractional Gaussian noise processes. Finally, we divide fractal traffic into two types, applicationlevel fractal traffic and networklevel fractal traffic, and argue that each type has radically different implications for the design and control of fut...
HBIND: A New Approach to Providing Statistical Performance Guarantees to VBR Traffic
 Proc. IEEE INFOCOM’96
, 1996
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Simple and Efficient Models for Variable Bit Rate MPEG Video Traffic
 Performance Evaluation
, 1995
"... For the performance analysis of ATM networks carrying Variable Bit Rate (VBR) MPEG video sequences there is a need for appropriate video traffic models. In this paper, we discuss Markov chain models for this specific type of traffic with respect to several statistical properties and their ability to ..."
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Cited by 49 (2 self)
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For the performance analysis of ATM networks carrying Variable Bit Rate (VBR) MPEG video sequences there is a need for appropriate video traffic models. In this paper, we discuss Markov chain models for this specific type of traffic with respect to several statistical properties and their ability to predict cell losses at buffers of ATM multiplexers. We intentionally selected a simple model class to check for its appropriateness to model a complex traffic type. The results of this paper show that Markov chain models can be used efficiently for MPEG video traffic under the following conditions. The Group of Pictures (GOP) generation process should be modeled rather than the frame process. If the performance measures depend on the correlation properties of the video traffic the scene process should also be considered in the course of the model development. 1 Introduction In BISDNs on the basis of the ATM, a major part of the traffic will be generated by multimedia sources like teleco...
Estimating the parameters of a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with linear rate
 Telecommunication Systems
, 1996
"... Motivated by telecommunication applications, we investigate ways to estimate the parameters of a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with linear rate over a finite interval, based on the number of counts in measurement subintervals. Such a linear arrivalrate function can serve as a component of a piecew ..."
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Cited by 31 (16 self)
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Motivated by telecommunication applications, we investigate ways to estimate the parameters of a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with linear rate over a finite interval, based on the number of counts in measurement subintervals. Such a linear arrivalrate function can serve as a component of a piecewiselinear approximation to a general arrivalrate function. We consider ordinary least squares (OLS), iterative weighted least squares (IWLS) and maximum likelihood (ML), all constrained to yield a nonnegative rate function. We prove that ML coincides with IWLS. As a reference point, we also consider the theoretically optimal weighted least squares (TWLS), which is least squares with weights inversely proportional to the variances (which would not be known with data). Overall, ML performs almost as well as TWLS. We describe computer simulations conducted to evaluate these estimation procedures. None of the procedures differ greatly when the rate function is not near 0 at either end, but when the rate function is near 0 at one end, TWLS and ML are significantly more effective than OLS. The number of measurement subintervals (with fixed total interval) makes surprisingly little difference when the rate function is not near 0 at either end. The variances are higher with only two or three
Delay Analysis of Selective Repeat ARQ for a Markovian Source Over a Wireless Channel
 IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol
, 1999
"... In this paper, we analyze the mean delay experienced by a Markovian source over a wireless channel with timevarying error characteristics. The wireless link implements the selectiverepeat ARQ scheme for retransmission of erroneous packets. We obtain good approximations of the total delay, which con ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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In this paper, we analyze the mean delay experienced by a Markovian source over a wireless channel with timevarying error characteristics. The wireless link implements the selectiverepeat ARQ scheme for retransmission of erroneous packets. We obtain good approximations of the total delay, which consists of transport and resequencing delays. The transport delay, in turn, consists of queueing and transmission delays. In contrast to previous studies, our analysis accommodates both the inherent autocorrelations in the input traffic and the timevarying nature of channel conditions. The exact probability generating function (PGF) of the queue length under "ideal" SR ARQ is obtained and is combined with the retransmission delay to obtain the mean transport delay. For the resequencing delay, the analysis is performed under the assumptions of heavy traffic and small window sizes (relative to the channel sojourn times). The inaccuracy due to these assumptions is observed to be negligible. We sh...
Modeling Heterogeneous Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain: Part II  NonGaussian Traffic
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1999
"... Following our work described in Part I of this paper that modeled various correlation structures of Gaussian traffic in wavelet domain, we extend our previous models to heterogeneous network traffic with either a nonGaussian distribution or a periodic structure. To include a nonGaussian distributi ..."
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Cited by 25 (1 self)
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Following our work described in Part I of this paper that modeled various correlation structures of Gaussian traffic in wavelet domain, we extend our previous models to heterogeneous network traffic with either a nonGaussian distribution or a periodic structure. To include a nonGaussian distribution, we first investigate what higherorder statistics are pertinent by exploring a relationship between timescale analysis of wavelets and cumulative traffic. We then develop a novel algorithm in the wavelet domain to capture the important statistics. By utilizing local properties of wavelet basis in both space and time, we further extend such wavelet models to periodic MPEG traffic. As wavelets provide a natural fit to higherorder statistics as well as localized spatial and temporal dependence of periodic traffic at different time scales, the resulting wavelet models for both nonGaussian and periodic traffic are simple and accurate with the lowest computational complexity attainable. 1 I...
Multiple Time Scales and Subexponentiality in MPEG Video Streams
 in International IFIPIEEE Conference on Broadband Communications
, 1996
"... We develop a practical, multiple time scale model for MPEG video traffic whose accuracy and relatively low computational complexity make it well suited for realtime traffic generation experiments on broadband networks. The major feature of our approach is the decomposition of the frame size sequenc ..."
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Cited by 24 (10 self)
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We develop a practical, multiple time scale model for MPEG video traffic whose accuracy and relatively low computational complexity make it well suited for realtime traffic generation experiments on broadband networks. The major feature of our approach is the decomposition of the frame size sequence into simple slow and fast time scale components. This accurately captures aspects of queueing behavior that are difficult to model otherwise. The model also exploits the existence of deterministic patterns that are due to the MPEG coding scheme. We also present a novel modeling approach based on spatial renewal processes (SRP). This model gives exact matches to any desired marginal distribution and any convex nonincreasing autocorrelation function. In particular, it can match subexponentially decaying autocorrelations (i.e., can capture long range dependence), something no other model of comparable complexity can do. A SRP is suited for online model construction, since it involves no sea...
A Source Model for VBR Video Traffic Based on M/G/∞ Input Processes
 In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM’98
, 1998
"... krunzQece.arizona. edu ..."