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166
A unified framework for Regularization Networks and Support Vector Machines
, 1999
"... This report describers research done at the Center for Biological & Computational Learning and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This research was sponsored by theN ational Science Foundation under contractN o. IIS9800032, the O#ce ofN aval Researc ..."
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Cited by 50 (13 self)
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This report describers research done at the Center for Biological & Computational Learning and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This research was sponsored by theN ational Science Foundation under contractN o. IIS9800032, the O#ce ofN aval Research under contractN o.N 0001493 10385 and contractN o.N 000149510600. Partial support was also provided by DaimlerBenz AG, Eastman Kodak, Siemens Corporate Research, Inc., ATR and AT&T. Contents Introductic 3 2 OverviF of stati.48EF learni4 theory 5 2.1 Unifo6 Co vergence and the VapnikChervo nenkis bo und ............. 7 2.2 The metho d o Structural Risk Minimizatio ..................... 10 2.3 #unifo8 co vergence and the V # ..................... 10 2.4 Overviewo fo urappro6 h ............................... 13 3 Reproduci9 Kernel HiT ert Spaces: a briL overviE 14 4RegulariEqq.L Networks 16 4.1 Radial Basis Functio8 ................................. 19 4.2 Regularizatioz generalized splines and kernel smo oxy rs .............. 20 4.3 Dual representatio o f Regularizatio Netwo rks ................... 21 4.4 Fro regressioto 5 Support vector machiT9 22 5.1 SVMin RKHS ..................................... 22 5.2 Fro regressioto 6SRMforRNsandSVMs 26 6.1 SRMfo SVMClassificatio .............................. 28 6.1.1 Distributio dependent bo undsfo SVMC .................. 29 7 A BayesiL Interpretatiq ofRegulariTFqEL and SRM? 30 7.1 Maximum A Po terio6 Interpretatio o f ............... 30 7.2 Bayesian interpretatio o f the stabilizer in the RN andSVMfunctio6I6 ...... 32 7.3 Bayesian interpretatio o f the data term in the Regularizatio andSVMfunctioy8 33 7.4 Why a MAP interpretatio may be misleading .................... 33 Connectine between SVMs and Sparse Ap...
Neural Networks with Quadratic VC Dimension
, 1996
"... This paper shows that neural networks which use continuous activation functions have VC dimension at least as large as the square of the number of weights w. This result settles a longstanding open question, namely whether the wellknown O(w log w) bound, known for hardthreshold nets, also held fo ..."
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Cited by 46 (7 self)
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This paper shows that neural networks which use continuous activation functions have VC dimension at least as large as the square of the number of weights w. This result settles a longstanding open question, namely whether the wellknown O(w log w) bound, known for hardthreshold nets, also held for more general sigmoidal nets. Implications for the number of samples needed for valid generalization are discussed.
AlmostEverywhere Algorithmic Stability and Generalization Error
 In UAI2002: Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 2002
"... We introduce a new notion of algorithmic stability, which we call training stability. ..."
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Cited by 44 (8 self)
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We introduce a new notion of algorithmic stability, which we call training stability.
Statistical performance of support vector machines
 ANN. STATIST
, 2008
"... The support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is well known to the computer learning community for its very good practical results. The goal of the present paper is to study this algorithm from a statistical perspective, using tools of concentration theory and empirical processes. Our main result build ..."
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Cited by 42 (8 self)
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The support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is well known to the computer learning community for its very good practical results. The goal of the present paper is to study this algorithm from a statistical perspective, using tools of concentration theory and empirical processes. Our main result builds on the observation made by other authors that the SVM can be viewed as a statistical regularization procedure. From this point of view, it can also be interpreted as a model selection principle using a penalized criterion. It is then possible to adapt general methods related to model selection in this framework to study two important points: (1) what is the minimum penalty and how does it compare to the penalty actually used in the SVM algorithm; (2) is it possible to obtain “oracle inequalities ” in that setting, for the specific loss function used in the SVM algorithm? We show that the answer to the latter question is positive and provides relevant insight to the former. Our result shows that it is possible to obtain fast rates of convergence for SVMs.
Covering Number Bounds of Certain Regularized Linear Function Classes
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2002
"... Recently, sample complexity bounds have been derived for problems involving linear functions such as neural networks and support vector machines. In many of these theoretical studies, the concept of covering numbers played an important role. It is thus useful to study covering numbers for linear ..."
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Cited by 42 (3 self)
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Recently, sample complexity bounds have been derived for problems involving linear functions such as neural networks and support vector machines. In many of these theoretical studies, the concept of covering numbers played an important role. It is thus useful to study covering numbers for linear function classes. In this paper, we investigate two closely related methods to derive upper bounds on these covering numbers. The first method, already employed in some earlier studies, relies on the socalled Maurey's lemma; the second method uses techniques from the mistake bound framework in online learning. We compare results from these two methods, as well as their consequences in some learning formulations.
Combining Discriminant Models with new MultiClass SVMs
, 2000
"... The idea of combining models instead of simply selecting the best one, in order to improve performance, is well known in statistics and has a long theoretical background. However, making full use of theoretical results is ordinarily subject to the satisfaction of strong hypotheses (weak correlati ..."
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Cited by 39 (10 self)
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The idea of combining models instead of simply selecting the best one, in order to improve performance, is well known in statistics and has a long theoretical background. However, making full use of theoretical results is ordinarily subject to the satisfaction of strong hypotheses (weak correlation among the errors, availability of large training sets, possibility to rerun the training procedure an arbitrary number of times, etc.). In contrast, the practitioner who has to make a decision is frequently faced with the dicult problem of combining a given set of pretrained classiers, with highly correlated errors, using only a small training sample. Overtting is then the main risk, which cannot be overcome but with a strict complexity control of the combiner selected. This suggests that SVMs, which implement the SRM inductive principle, should be well suited for these dicult situations. Investigating this idea, we introduce a new family of multiclass SVMs and assess them as ensemble methods on a realworld problem. This task, protein secondary structure prediction, is an open problem in biocomputing for which model combination appears to be an issue of central importance. Experimental evidence highlights the gain in quality resulting from combining some of the most widely used prediction methods with our SVMs rather than with the ensemble methods traditionally used in the eld. The gain is increased when the outputs of the combiners are postprocessed with a simple DP algorithm.
Algorithmic Stability and Generalization Performance
, 2001
"... We present a novel way of obtaining PACstyle bounds on the generalization error of learning algorithms, explicitly using their stability properties. A stable learner is one for which the learned solution does not change much with small changes in the training set. The bounds we obtain do not depend ..."
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Cited by 37 (2 self)
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We present a novel way of obtaining PACstyle bounds on the generalization error of learning algorithms, explicitly using their stability properties. A stable learner is one for which the learned solution does not change much with small changes in the training set. The bounds we obtain do not depend on any measure of the complexity of the hypothesis space (e.g. VC dimension) but rather depend on how the learning algorithm searches this space, and can thus be applied even when the VC dimension is infinite. We demonstrate that regularization networks possess the required stability property and apply our method to obtain new bounds on their generalization performance.
Model Selection for Regularized LeastSquares Algorithm in Learning Theory
 Foundations of Computational Mathematics
, 2005
"... Abstract. We investigate the problem of model selection for learning algorithms depending on a continuous parameter. We propose a model selection procedure based on a worst case analysis and dataindependent choice of the parameter. For regularized leastsquares algorithm we bound the generalization ..."
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Cited by 37 (12 self)
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Abstract. We investigate the problem of model selection for learning algorithms depending on a continuous parameter. We propose a model selection procedure based on a worst case analysis and dataindependent choice of the parameter. For regularized leastsquares algorithm we bound the generalization error of the solution by a quantity depending on few known constants and we show that the corresponding model selection procedure reduces to solving a biasvariance problem. Under suitable smoothness condition on the regression function, we estimate the optimal parameter as function of the number of data and we prove that this choice ensures consistency of the algorithm. 1.
A Review of Kernel Methods in Machine Learning
, 2006
"... We review recent methods for learning with positive definite kernels. All these methods formulate learning and estimation problems as linear tasks in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) associated with a kernel. We cover a wide range of methods, ranging from simple classifiers to sophisticate ..."
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Cited by 35 (3 self)
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We review recent methods for learning with positive definite kernels. All these methods formulate learning and estimation problems as linear tasks in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) associated with a kernel. We cover a wide range of methods, ranging from simple classifiers to sophisticated methods for estimation with structured data.
For Valid Generalization, the Size of the Weights is More Important Than the Size of the Network
, 1997
"... This paper shows that if a large neural network is used for a pattern classification problem, and the learning algorithm finds a network with small weights that has small squared error on the training patterns, then the generalization performance depends on the size of the weights rather than the nu ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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This paper shows that if a large neural network is used for a pattern classification problem, and the learning algorithm finds a network with small weights that has small squared error on the training patterns, then the generalization performance depends on the size of the weights rather than the number of weights. More specifically, consider an `layer feedforward network of sigmoid units, in which the sum of the magnitudes of the weights associated with each unit is bounded by A. The misclassification probability converges to an error estimate (that is closely related to squared error on the training set) at rate O((cA) `(`+1)=2 p (log n)=m) ignoring log factors, where m is the number of training patterns, n is the input dimension, and c is a constant. This may explain the generalization performance of neural networks, particularly when the number of training examples is considerably smaller than the number of weights. It also supports heuristics (such as weight decay and early st...