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Ant algorithms for discrete optimization
 ARTIFICIAL LIFE
, 1999
"... This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic ..."
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Cited by 314 (42 self)
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This article presents an overview of recent work on ant algorithms, that is, algorithms for discrete optimization that took inspiration from the observation of ant colonies’ foraging behavior, and introduces the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. In the first part of the article the basic biological findings on real ants are reviewed and their artificial counterparts as well as the ACO metaheuristic are defined. In the second part of the article a number of applications of ACO algorithms to combinatorial optimization and routing in communications networks are described. We conclude with a discussion of related work and of some of the most important aspects of the ACO metaheuristic.
On Evolution, Search, Optimization, Genetic Algorithms and Martial Arts  Towards Memetic Algorithms
, 1989
"... Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that one could ..."
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Cited by 186 (10 self)
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Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that one could possibly enumerate 10 9 tours per second on a computer it would thus take roughly 10 639 years of computing to establish the optimality of this tour by exhaustive enumeration." This quote shows the real difficulty of a combinatorial optimization problem. The huge number of configurations is the primary difficulty when dealing with one of these problems. The quote belongs to M.W Padberg and M. Grotschel, Chap. 9., "Polyhedral computations", from the book The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Guided tour of Combinatorial Optimization [124]. It is interesting to compare the number of configurations of realworld problems in combinatorial optimization with those large numbers arising in Cosmol...
Ant colonies for the travelling salesman problem
, 1997
"... We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer si ..."
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Cited by 156 (5 self)
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We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generating good solutions to both symmetric and asymmetric instances of the TSP. The method is an example, like simulated annealing, neural networks and evolutionary computation, of the successful use of a natural metaphor to design an optimization algorithm.
Experimental Analysis of Heuristics for the STSP
 Local Search in Combinatorial Optimization
, 2001
"... In this and the following chapter, we consider what approaches one should take when one is confronted with a realworld application of the TSP. What algorithms should be used under which circumstances? We ..."
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Cited by 53 (1 self)
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In this and the following chapter, we consider what approaches one should take when one is confronted with a realworld application of the TSP. What algorithms should be used under which circumstances? We
Memetic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: Fitness Landscapes and Effective Search Strategies
, 2001
"... ..."
Fitness Landscapes, Memetic Algorithms, and Greedy Operators for Graph Bipartitioning
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2000
"... The fitness landscape of the graph bipartitioning problem is investigated by performing a search space analysis for several types of graphs. The analysis shows that the structure of the search space is significantly different for the types of instances studied. Moreover, with increasing epistasis ..."
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Cited by 48 (13 self)
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The fitness landscape of the graph bipartitioning problem is investigated by performing a search space analysis for several types of graphs. The analysis shows that the structure of the search space is significantly different for the types of instances studied. Moreover, with increasing epistasis, the amount of gene interactions in the representation of a solution in an evolutionary algorithm, the number of local minima for one type of instance decreases and, thus, the search becomes easier. We suggest that other characteristics besides high epistasis might have greater influence on the hardness of a problem. To understand these characteristics, the notion of a dependency graph describing gene interactions is introduced.
ACO Algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem
 Periaux (eds), Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering and Computer Science: Recent Advances in Genetic Algorithms, Evolution Strategies, Evolutionary Programming, Genetic Programming and Industrial Applications
, 1999
"... Ant algorithms [18, 14, 19] are a recently developed, populationbased approach which has been successfully applied to several NPhard combinatorial ..."
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Cited by 43 (6 self)
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Ant algorithms [18, 14, 19] are a recently developed, populationbased approach which has been successfully applied to several NPhard combinatorial
Routing in Telecommunications Networks With "smart" AntLike Agents
 In Proceedings of IATA'98, Second Int. Workshop on Intelligent Agents for Telecommunication Applications. Lectures Notes in AI
, 1998
"... . A simple mechanism is presented, based on antlike agents, for routing and load balancing in telecommunications networks, following the initial works of Appleby and Stewart (1994) and Schoonderwoerd et al. (1997). In the present work, agents are very similar to those proposed by Schoonderwoerd et ..."
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Cited by 42 (1 self)
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. A simple mechanism is presented, based on antlike agents, for routing and load balancing in telecommunications networks, following the initial works of Appleby and Stewart (1994) and Schoonderwoerd et al. (1997). In the present work, agents are very similar to those proposed by Schoonderwoerd et al. (1997), but a r e supplemented with a simplified dynamic programming capability, initially experimented by Gurin (1997) with more complex agents, which is shown to significantly improve the network's relaxation and its response to perturbations. Topic area: Intelligent agents and network management 2 1. Introduction 1.1 Routing in telecommunications networks Routing is a mechanism that allows calls to be transmitted from a source to a destination through a sequence of intermediate switching stations or nodes, because not all points are directly connected: the cost of completely connecting a network becomes prohibitive for more than a few nodes. Routing selects routes that meet the o...
Multilevel Refinement for Combinatorial Optimisation Problems
 SE10 9LS
, 2001
"... Abstract. We consider the multilevel paradigm and its potential to aid the solution of combinatorial optimisation problems. The multilevel paradigm is a simple one, which involves recursive coarsening to create a hierarchy of approximations to the original problem. An initial solution is found (some ..."
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Cited by 30 (5 self)
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Abstract. We consider the multilevel paradigm and its potential to aid the solution of combinatorial optimisation problems. The multilevel paradigm is a simple one, which involves recursive coarsening to create a hierarchy of approximations to the original problem. An initial solution is found (sometimes for the original problem, sometimes the coarsest) and then iteratively refined at each level. As a general solution strategy, the multilevel paradigm has been in use for many years and has been applied to many problem areas (most notably in the form of multigrid techniques). However, with the exception of the graph partitioning problem, multilevel techniques have not been widely applied to combinatorial optimisation problems. In this paper we address the issue of multilevel refinement for such problems and, with the aid of examples and results in graph partitioning, graph colouring and the travelling salesman problem, make a case for its use as a metaheuristic. The results provide compelling evidence that, although the multilevel framework cannot be considered as a panacea for combinatorial problems, it can provide an extremely useful addition to the combinatorial optimisation toolkit. We also give a possible explanation for the underlying process and extract some generic guidelines for its future use on other combinatorial problems.