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196
PolynomialTime Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer
 SIAM J. on Computing
, 1997
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 883 (2 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and which have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored.
Simulating Physics with Computers
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1982
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 396 (1 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. AMS subject classifications: 82P10, 11Y05, 68Q10. 1 Introduction One of the first results in the mathematics of computation, which underlies the subsequent development of much of theoretical computer science, was the distinction between computable and ...
Physical symbol systems
 Cogn. Sci
"... to review the basis of common understanding between the various disciplines. In my estimate, the most fundamental contribution so far of artificial intelligence and computer science to the joint enterprise of cognitive science has been the notion of a physical symbol system, i.e., the concept of D b ..."
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Cited by 196 (1 self)
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to review the basis of common understanding between the various disciplines. In my estimate, the most fundamental contribution so far of artificial intelligence and computer science to the joint enterprise of cognitive science has been the notion of a physical symbol system, i.e., the concept of D broad class of systems capable of having and manipulating symbois, yet realizable in the physical universe. The notion of symbol so defined is internal to this concept, so it becomes a hypothesis that this notion of symbols includes the symbols that we humans use every day of our lives. In this paper we attempt systematically, but plainly, to lay out the nature of physical symbol systems. Such IJ review is in ways familiar, but not thereby useless. Restatement of fundamentals is an important exercise. 1.
Logic and the Challenge of Computer Science
, 1988
"... Nowadays computer science is surpassing mathematics as the primary field of logic applications, but logic is not tuned properly to the new role. In particular, classical logic is preoccupied mostly with infinite static structures whereas many objects of interest in computer science are dynamic objec ..."
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Cited by 153 (16 self)
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Nowadays computer science is surpassing mathematics as the primary field of logic applications, but logic is not tuned properly to the new role. In particular, classical logic is preoccupied mostly with infinite static structures whereas many objects of interest in computer science are dynamic objects with bounded resources. This chapter consists of two independent parts. The first part is devoted to finite model theory; it is mostly a survey of logics tailored for computational complexity. The second part is devoted to dynamic structures with bounded resources. In particular, we use dynamic structures with bounded resources to model Pascal.
On Observational Equivalence and Algebraic Specification
, 1987
"... The properties of a simple and natural notion of observational equivalence of algebras and the corresponding specificationbuilding operation are studied. We begin with a defmition of observational equivalence which is adequate to handle reachable algebras only, and show how to extend it to cope wit ..."
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Cited by 66 (17 self)
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The properties of a simple and natural notion of observational equivalence of algebras and the corresponding specificationbuilding operation are studied. We begin with a defmition of observational equivalence which is adequate to handle reachable algebras only, and show how to extend it to cope with unreachable algebras and also how it may be generalised to make sense under an arbitrary institution. Behavioural equivalence is treated as an important special case of observational equivalence, and its central role in program development is shown by means of an example.
CodeGeneration OntheFly: A Key to Portable Software
, 1994
"... A technique for representing programs abstractly and independently of the eventual target architecture is presented that yields a file representation twice as compact as machine code for a CISC processor. It forms the basis of an implementation, in which the process of code generation is deferred ..."
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Cited by 49 (19 self)
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A technique for representing programs abstractly and independently of the eventual target architecture is presented that yields a file representation twice as compact as machine code for a CISC processor. It forms the basis of an implementation, in which the process of code generation is deferred until the time of loading. At that point, native code is created on_the_fly by a code_generating loader. The process of loading with dynamic code_generation is so fast that it requires little more time than the input of equivalent native code from a disk storage medium. This is predominantly due to the compactness of the abstract program representation, which allows to counterbalance the ad...
A lambda calculus for quantum computation
 SIAM Journal of Computing
"... The classical lambda calculus may be regarded both as a programming language and as a formal algebraic system for reasoning about computation. It provides a computational model equivalent to the Turing machine, and continues to be of enormous benefit in the classical theory of computation. We propos ..."
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Cited by 49 (1 self)
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The classical lambda calculus may be regarded both as a programming language and as a formal algebraic system for reasoning about computation. It provides a computational model equivalent to the Turing machine, and continues to be of enormous benefit in the classical theory of computation. We propose that quantum computation, like its classical counterpart, may benefit from a version of the lambda calculus suitable for expressing and reasoning about quantum algorithms. In this paper we develop a quantum lambda calculus as an alternative model of quantum computation, which combines some of the benefits of both the quantum Turing machine and the quantum circuit models. The calculus turns out to be closely related to the linear lambda calculi used in the study of Linear Logic. We set up a computational model and an equational proof system for this calculus, and we argue that it is equivalent to the quantum Turing machine.
Routines and other recurring action patterns of organizations: Contemporary research issues
 Industrial and Corporate Change
, 1996
"... This paper reports and extends discussions carried out during a workshop held at the Santa Fe Institute in August 1995 by the authors. It treats eight major topics: (i) the importance of carefully examining research on routine, (it) the concept of 'action patterns ' in general and in terms of routin ..."
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Cited by 46 (10 self)
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This paper reports and extends discussions carried out during a workshop held at the Santa Fe Institute in August 1995 by the authors. It treats eight major topics: (i) the importance of carefully examining research on routine, (it) the concept of 'action patterns ' in general and in terms of routine, (Hi) the useful categorization of routines and other recurring patterns, (iv) the research implications of recent cognitive results, (v) the relation of evolution to action patterns, (vi) the contributions of simulation modeling for theory in this area, (vii) examples of various approaches to empirical jj; research that reveal key problems, and (viii) a possible definition of 'routine'. An m extended appendix by Massimo Egidi provides a lexicon of synonyms and opposites ji covering use of the word 'routine ' in such areas as economics, organization theory and z artificial intelligence. 6
The complexity of analog computation
 in Math. and Computers in Simulation 28(1986
"... We ask if analog computers can solve NPcomplete problems efficiently. Regarding this as unlikely, we formulate a strong version of Church’s Thesis: that any analog computer can be simulated efficiently (in polynomial time) by a digital computer. From this assumption and the assumption that P ≠ NP w ..."
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Cited by 38 (0 self)
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We ask if analog computers can solve NPcomplete problems efficiently. Regarding this as unlikely, we formulate a strong version of Church’s Thesis: that any analog computer can be simulated efficiently (in polynomial time) by a digital computer. From this assumption and the assumption that P ≠ NP we can draw conclusions about the operation of physical devices used for computation. An NPcomplete problem, 3SAT, is reduced to the problem of checking whether a feasible point is a local optimum of an optimization problem. A mechanical device is proposed for the solution of this problem. It encodes variables as shaft angles and uses gears and smooth cams. If we grant Strong Church’s Thesis, that P ≠ NP, and a certain ‘‘Downhill Principle’ ’ governing the physical behavior of the machine, we conclude that it cannot operate successfully while using only polynomial resources. We next prove Strong Church’s Thesis for a class of analog computers described by wellbehaved ordinary differential equations, which we can take as representing part of classical mechanics. We conclude with a comment on the recently discovered connection between spin glasses and combinatorial optimization. 1.