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28
Totality in Applicative Theories
 ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC
, 1995
"... In this paper we study applicative theories of operations and numbers with (and without) the nonconstructive minimum operator in the context of a total application operation. We determine the prooftheoretic strength of such theories by relating them to wellknown systems like Peano Arithmetic ..."
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Cited by 21 (12 self)
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In this paper we study applicative theories of operations and numbers with (and without) the nonconstructive minimum operator in the context of a total application operation. We determine the prooftheoretic strength of such theories by relating them to wellknown systems like Peano Arithmetic PA and the system (\Pi 0 1 CA) !"0 of second order arithmetic. Essential use will be made of socalled fixedpoint theories with ordinals, certain infinitary term models and Church Rosser properties.
Lectures on proof theory
 in Proc. Summer School in Logic, Leeds 67
, 1968
"... This is a survey of some of the principal developments in proof theory from its inception in the 1920s, at the hands of David Hilbert, up to the 1960s. Hilbert's aim was to use this as a tool in his nitary consistency program to eliminate the \actual in nite " in mathematics from proofs of purely ni ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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This is a survey of some of the principal developments in proof theory from its inception in the 1920s, at the hands of David Hilbert, up to the 1960s. Hilbert's aim was to use this as a tool in his nitary consistency program to eliminate the \actual in nite " in mathematics from proofs of purely nitary statements. One of the main approaches that turned out to be the most useful in pursuit of this program was that due to Gerhard Gentzen, in the 1930s, via his calculi of \sequents" and his CutElimination Theorem for them. Following that we trace how and why prima facie in nitary concepts, such as ordinals, and in nitary methods, such as the use of in nitely long proofs, gradually came to dominate prooftheoretical developments. In this rst lecture I will give anoverview of the developments in proof theory since Hilbert's initiative in establishing the subject in the 1920s. For this purpose I am following the rst part of a series of expository lectures that I gave for the Logic Colloquium `94 held in ClermontFerrand 2123 July 1994, but haven't published. The theme of my lectures there was that although Hilbert established his theory of proofs as a part of his foundational program and, for philosophical reasons whichwe shall get into, aimed to have it developed in a completely nitistic way, the actual work in proof theory This is the rst of three lectures that I delivered at the conference, Proof Theory: History
On the Uniform Weak König's Lemma
, 1999
"... The socalled weak König's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an in nite path b in any in nite binary tree (given by a representing function f ). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higherorder arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics b ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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The socalled weak König's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an in nite path b in any in nite binary tree (given by a representing function f ). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higherorder arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics but are 2  conservative over primitive recursive arithmetic PRA (and even weaker fragments of arithmetic). In [10] we established such conservation results relative to nite type extensions PRA of PRA (together with a quanti erfree axiom of choice schema). In this setting one can consider also a uniform version UWKL of WKL which asserts the existence of a functional which selects uniformly in a given in nite binary tree f an in nite path f of that tree. This uniform version of WKL is of interest in the context of explicit mathematics as developed by S. Feferman. The elimination process in [10] actually can be used to eliminate even this uniform weak König's lemma provided that PRA only has a quanti erfree rule of extensionality QFER instead of the full axioms (E) of extensionality for all nite types. In this paper we show that in the presence of (E), UWKL is much stronger than WKL: whereas WKL remains to be 2 conservative over PRA, PRA + (E)+UWKL contains (and is conservative over) full Peano arithmetic PA.
Ordered Groups: A Case Study In Reverse Mathematics
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 1999
"... this article, we will be concerned only with fully ordered groups and will use the term ordered group to mean fully ordered group. There are a number of group conditions which imply full orderability. The simplest is given by the following classical theorem. ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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this article, we will be concerned only with fully ordered groups and will use the term ordered group to mean fully ordered group. There are a number of group conditions which imply full orderability. The simplest is given by the following classical theorem.
The Realm of Ordinal Analysis
 SETS AND PROOFS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE LOGIC COLLOQUIUM '97
, 1997
"... A central theme running through all the main areas of Mathematical Logic is the classification of sets, functions or theories, by means of transfinite hierarchies whose ordinal levels measure their `rank' or `complexity' in some sense appropriate to the underlying context. In Proof Theory this is ma ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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A central theme running through all the main areas of Mathematical Logic is the classification of sets, functions or theories, by means of transfinite hierarchies whose ordinal levels measure their `rank' or `complexity' in some sense appropriate to the underlying context. In Proof Theory this is manifest in the assignment of `proof theoretic ordinals' to theories, gauging their `consistency strength' and `computational power'. Ordinaltheoretic proof theory came into existence in 1936, springing forth from Gentzen's head in the course of his consistency proof of arithmetic. To put it roughly, ordinal analyses attach ordinals in a given representation system to formal theories. Though this area of mathematical logic has is roots in Hilbert's "Beweistheorie "  the aim of which was to lay to rest all worries about the foundations of mathematics once and for all by securing mathematics via an absolute proof of consistency  technical results in pro...
Polynomial Time Operations in Explicit Mathematics
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1997
"... In this paper we study (self)applicative theories of operations and binary words in the context of polynomial time computability. We propose a first order theory PTO which allows full selfapplication and whose provably total functions on W = f0; 1g are exactly the polynomial time computable fu ..."
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Cited by 7 (5 self)
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In this paper we study (self)applicative theories of operations and binary words in the context of polynomial time computability. We propose a first order theory PTO which allows full selfapplication and whose provably total functions on W = f0; 1g are exactly the polynomial time computable functions.
The µ Quantification Operator in Explicit Mathematics With Universes and Iterated Fixed Point Theories With Ordinals
, 1998
"... This paper is about two topics: 1. systems of explicit mathematics with universes and a nonconstructive quantification operator ¯; 2. iterated fixed point theories with ordinals. We give a prooftheoretic treatment of both families of theories; in particular, ordinal theories are used to get upper ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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This paper is about two topics: 1. systems of explicit mathematics with universes and a nonconstructive quantification operator ¯; 2. iterated fixed point theories with ordinals. We give a prooftheoretic treatment of both families of theories; in particular, ordinal theories are used to get upper bounds for explicit theories with finitely many universes. 1 Introduction The two major frameworks for explicit mathematics that were introduced in Feferman [4, 5] are the theories T 0 and T 1 . T 1 results from T 0 by strengthening the applicative axioms by the socalled nonconstructive ¯ operator. Although highly nonconstructive, ¯ is predicatively acceptable and makes quantification over the natural numbers explicit. While the proof theory of T 0 is wellknown since the early eighties (cf. Feferman [4, 5], Feferman and Sieg [10], Jager [14], Jager and Pohlers [17]), the corresponding investigations of subystems of T 1 have been completed only recently by Feferman and Jager [9, 8] and G...
"Clarifying the Nature of the Infinite": the development of metamathematics and proof theory
, 2001
"... We discuss the development of metamathematics in the Hilbert school, and Hilbert's prooftheoretic program in particular. We place this program in a broader historical and philosophical context, especially with respect to nineteenth century developments in mathematics and logic. Finally, we show how ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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We discuss the development of metamathematics in the Hilbert school, and Hilbert's prooftheoretic program in particular. We place this program in a broader historical and philosophical context, especially with respect to nineteenth century developments in mathematics and logic. Finally, we show how these considerations help frame our understanding of metamathematics and proof theory today.
The metamathematics of ergodic theory
 THE ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC
, 2009
"... The metamathematical tradition, tracing back to Hilbert, employs syntactic modeling to study the methods of contemporary mathematics. A central goal has been, in particular, to explore the extent to which infinitary methods can be understood in computational or otherwise explicit terms. Ergodic theo ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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The metamathematical tradition, tracing back to Hilbert, employs syntactic modeling to study the methods of contemporary mathematics. A central goal has been, in particular, to explore the extent to which infinitary methods can be understood in computational or otherwise explicit terms. Ergodic theory provides rich opportunities for such analysis. Although the field has its origins in seventeenth century dynamics and nineteenth century statistical mechanics, it employs infinitary, nonconstructive, and structural methods that are characteristically modern. At the same time, computational concerns and recent applications to combinatorics and number theory force us to reconsider the constructive character of the theory and its methods. This paper surveys some recent contributions to the metamathematical study of ergodic theory, focusing on the mean and pointwise ergodic theorems and the Furstenberg structure theorem for measure preserving systems. In particular, I characterize the extent to which these theorems are nonconstructive, and explain how prooftheoretic methods can be used to locate their “constructive content.”