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A Tutorial on Visual Servo Control
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
, 1996
"... This paper provides a tutorial introduction to visual servo control of robotic manipulators. Since the topic spans many disciplines our goal is limited to providing a basic conceptual framework. We begin by reviewing the prerequisite topics from robotics and computer vision, including a brief review ..."
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Cited by 669 (23 self)
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This paper provides a tutorial introduction to visual servo control of robotic manipulators. Since the topic spans many disciplines our goal is limited to providing a basic conceptual framework. We begin by reviewing the prerequisite topics from robotics and computer vision, including a brief review of coordinate transformations, velocity representation, and a description of the geometric aspects of the image formation process. We then present a taxonomy of visual servo control systems. The two major classes of systems, positionbased and imagebased systems, are then discussed. Since any visual servo system must be capable of tracking image features in a sequence of images, we include an overview of featurebased and correlationbased methods for tracking. We conclude the tutorial with a number of observations on the current directions of the research field of visual servo control. 1 Introduction Today there are over 800,000 robots in the world, mostly working in factory environment...
A Robust Technique for Matching Two Uncalibrated Images Through the Recovery of the Unknown Epipolar Geometry
, 1994
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Determining the Epipolar Geometry and its Uncertainty: A Review
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1998
"... Two images of a single scene/object are related by the epipolar geometry, which can be described by a 3×3 singular matrix called the essential matrix if images' internal parameters are known, or the fundamental matrix otherwise. It captures all geometric information contained in two i ..."
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Cited by 340 (8 self)
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Two images of a single scene/object are related by the epipolar geometry, which can be described by a 3&times;3 singular matrix called the essential matrix if images' internal parameters are known, or the fundamental matrix otherwise. It captures all geometric information contained in two images, and its determination is very important in many applications such as scene modeling and vehicle navigation. This paper gives an introduction to the epipolar geometry, and provides a complete review of the current techniques for estimating the fundamental matrix and its uncertainty. A wellfounded measure is proposed to compare these techniques. Projective reconstruction is also reviewed. The software which we have developed for this review is available on the Internet.
Recognition of Human Body Motion Using Phase Space Constraints
 In ICCV
, 1995
"... A new method for representing and recognizing human bodymovements is presented. Assuming the availability of Cartesian tracking data, we develop techniques for representation of movements basedon spacecurves in subspaces of a "phase space." The phase space has axes of joint angles and tors ..."
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Cited by 135 (7 self)
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A new method for representing and recognizing human bodymovements is presented. Assuming the availability of Cartesian tracking data, we develop techniques for representation of movements basedon spacecurves in subspaces of a "phase space." The phase space has axes of joint angles and torso location and attitude, and the axes of the subspaces are subsets of the axes of the phase space. Using this representation we develop a system for learning new movements from ground truth data by searching for constraints which are in effect during the movement to be learned, and not in effect during other movements. We then use the learned representation for recognizing movements in data. Prior approaches by other researchers used a small number of classification categories, which demanded less attention to representation. We train and test the system on nine fundamental movements from classical ballet performed by two dancers. The system learns and accurately recognizes the nine movements in an un...
Augmented Reality Through Wearable Computing
, 1997
"... Wearable computing moves computation from the desktop to the user. We are forming a community of networked wearable computer users to explore, over a long period, the augmented realities that these systems can provide. By adapting its behavior to the user's changing environment, a bodyworn com ..."
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Cited by 123 (19 self)
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Wearable computing moves computation from the desktop to the user. We are forming a community of networked wearable computer users to explore, over a long period, the augmented realities that these systems can provide. By adapting its behavior to the user's changing environment, a bodyworn computer can assist the user more intelligently, consistently, and continuously than a desktop system. A textbased augmented reality, the Remembrance Agent, is presented to illustrate this approach. Video cameras are used both to warp the visual input (mediated reality) and to sense the user's world for graphical overlay. With a camera, the computer tracks the user's finger, which acts as the system's mouse; performs face recognition; and detects passive objects to overlay 2.5D and 3D graphics onto the real world. Additional apparatus such as audio systems, infrared beacons for sensing location, and biosensors for learning about the wearer's affect are described. Using the input from these interfac...
Fast and Globally Convergent Pose Estimation From Video Images
, 1998
"... Determining the rigid transformation relating 2D images to known 3D geometry is a classical problem in photogrammetry and computer vision. Heretofore, the best methods for solving the problem have relied on iterative optimization methods which cannot be proven to converge and/or which do not effecti ..."
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Cited by 119 (5 self)
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Determining the rigid transformation relating 2D images to known 3D geometry is a classical problem in photogrammetry and computer vision. Heretofore, the best methods for solving the problem have relied on iterative optimization methods which cannot be proven to converge and/or which do not effectively account for the orthonormal structure of rotation matrices. We show that the pose estimation problem can be formulated as that of minimizing an error metric based on collinearity in object (as opposed to image) space. Using object space collinearity error, we derive an iterative algorithm which directly computes orthogonal rotation matrices and which is globally convergent. Experimentally, we show that the method is computationally efficient, that it is no less accurate than the best currently employed optimization methods, and that it outperforms all tested methods in robustness to outliers. ChienPing Lu, Silicon Graphics Inc. cplu@engr.sgi.com y Greg Hager, Department of Computer...
Video Orbits of the Projective Group: A Simple Approach to Featureless Estimation of Parameters
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING
, 1997
"... We present direct featureless methods for estimating the eight parameters of an "exact" projective (homographic) coordinate transformation to register pairs of images, together with the application of seamlessly combining a plurality of images of the same scene, resulting in a single image ..."
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Cited by 89 (8 self)
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We present direct featureless methods for estimating the eight parameters of an "exact" projective (homographic) coordinate transformation to register pairs of images, together with the application of seamlessly combining a plurality of images of the same scene, resulting in a single image (or new image sequence) of greater resolution or spatial extent. The approach is "exact" for two cases of static scenes: 1) images taken from the same location of an arbitrary threedimensional (3D) scene, with a camera that is free to pan, tilt, rotate about its optical axis, and zoom, or 2) images of a flat scene taken from arbitrary locations. The featureless projective approach generalizes interframe camera motion estimation methods that have previously used an affine model (which lacks the degrees of freedom to "exactly" characterize such phenomena as camera pan and tilt) and/or which have relied upon finding points of correspondence between the image frames. The featureless projective approach...
3D Structure from 2D Motion
 IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
, 1999
"... this paper to delve into this formalism, further reading can be found in [41] [45]. In the following, we shall discuss its practical implementation and implications in the SfM techniques that have adopted it. ..."
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Cited by 59 (1 self)
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this paper to delve into this formalism, further reading can be found in [41] [45]. In the following, we shall discuss its practical implementation and implications in the SfM techniques that have adopted it.
Capturing Articulated Human Hand Motion: A DivideandConquer Approach
 In Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Computer Vision, volume I
, 1999
"... The use of human hand as a natural interface device serves as a motivating force for research in the modeling, analyzing and capturing of the motion of articulated hand. Modelbased hand motion capturing can be formulated as a large nonlinear programming problem, but this approach is plagued by loca ..."
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Cited by 45 (13 self)
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The use of human hand as a natural interface device serves as a motivating force for research in the modeling, analyzing and capturing of the motion of articulated hand. Modelbased hand motion capturing can be formulated as a large nonlinear programming problem, but this approach is plagued by local minima. An alternative way is to use analysisbysynthesis by searching a huge space, but the results are rough and the computation expensive. In this paper, articulated hand motion is decoupled, a new twostep iterative modelbased algorithm is proposed to capture articulated human hand motion, and a proof of convergence of this iterative algorithm is also given. In our proposed work, the decoupled global hand motion and local finger motion are parameterized by 3D hand pose and the state of the hand respectively. Hand pose determination is formulated as a least median of squares (LMS) problem rather than the nonrobust least squares ...
Improving Feature Tracking with Robust Statistics
 PATTERN ANALYSIS & APPLICATIONS (1999)2:312–320
, 1999
"... This paper addresses robust feature tracking. The aim is to track point features in a sequence of images and to identify unreliable features resulting from occlusions, perspective distortions and strong intensity changes. We extend the wellknown Shi–Tomasi–Kanade tracker by introducing an automatic ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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This paper addresses robust feature tracking. The aim is to track point features in a sequence of images and to identify unreliable features resulting from occlusions, perspective distortions and strong intensity changes. We extend the wellknown Shi–Tomasi–Kanade tracker by introducing an automatic scheme for rejecting spurious features. We employ a simple and efficient outliers rejection rule, called X84, and prove that its theoretical assumptions are satisfied in the feature tracking scenario. Experiments with real and synthetic images confirm that our algorithm consistently discards unreliable features; we show a quantitative example of the benefits introduced by the algorithm for the case of fundamental matrix estimation. The complete code of the robust tracker is available via ftp.