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195
A Markov Model for the Term Structure of Credit Risk Spreads
 Review of Financial Studies
, 1997
"... This article provides a Markov model for the term structure of credit risk spreads. The model is based on Jarrow and Turnbull (1995), with the bankruptcy process following a discrete state space Markov chain in credit ratings. The parameters of this process are easily estimated using observable data ..."
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Cited by 371 (12 self)
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This article provides a Markov model for the term structure of credit risk spreads. The model is based on Jarrow and Turnbull (1995), with the bankruptcy process following a discrete state space Markov chain in credit ratings. The parameters of this process are easily estimated using observable data. This model is useful for pricing and hedging corporate debt with imbedded options, for pricing and hedging OTC derivatives with counterparty risk, for pricing and hedging (foreign) government bonds subject to default risk (e.g., municipal bonds), for pricing and hedging credit derivatives, and for risk management. This article presents a simple model for valuing risky debt that explicitly incorporates a firm's credit rating as an indicator of the likelihood of default. As such, this article presents an arbitragefree model for the term structure of credit risk spreads and their evolution through time. This model will prove useful for the pricing and hedging of corporate debt with We would like to thank John Tierney of Lehman Brothers for providing the bond index price data, and Tal Schwartz for computational assistance. We would also like to acknowledge helpful comments received from an anonymous referee. Send all correspondence to Robert A. Jarrow, Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. The Review of Financial Studies Summer 1997 Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 481523 1997 The Review of Financial Studies 08939454/97/$1.50 imbedded options, for the pricing and hedging of OTC derivatives with counterparty risk, for the pricing and hedging of (foreign) government bonds subject to default risk (e.g., municipal bonds), and for the pricing and hedging of credit derivatives (e.g. credit sensitive notes and spread adjusted notes). This model can also...
Closedform likelihood expansions for multivariate diffusions (2002). NBER Working Paper No. W8956. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=313657
"... This paper provides closedform expansions for the loglikelihood function of multivariate diffusions sampled at discrete time intervals. The coefficients of the expansion are calculated explicitly by exploiting the special structure afforded by the diffusion model. Examples of interest in financial ..."
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Cited by 113 (3 self)
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This paper provides closedform expansions for the loglikelihood function of multivariate diffusions sampled at discrete time intervals. The coefficients of the expansion are calculated explicitly by exploiting the special structure afforded by the diffusion model. Examples of interest in financial statistics and Monte Carlo evidence are included, along with the convergence of the expansion to the true likelihood function.
Term structure dynamics in theory and reality
 Review of Financial Studies
, 2003
"... This paper is a critical survey of models designed for pricing fixed income securities and their associated term structures of market yields. Our primary focus is on the interplay between the theoretical specification of dynamic term structure models and their empirical fit to historical changes in ..."
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Cited by 102 (11 self)
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This paper is a critical survey of models designed for pricing fixed income securities and their associated term structures of market yields. Our primary focus is on the interplay between the theoretical specification of dynamic term structure models and their empirical fit to historical changes in the shapes of yield curves. We begin by overviewing the dynamic term structure models that have been fit to treasury or swap yield curves and in which the risk factors follow diffusions, jumpdiffusion, or have “switching regimes. ” Then the goodnessoffits of these models are assessed relative to their abilities to: (i) match linear projections of changes in yields onto the slope of the yield curve; (ii) match the persistence of conditional volatilities, and the shapes of term structures of unconditional volatilities, of yields; and (iii) to reliably price caps, swaptions, and other fixedincome derivatives. For the case of defaultable securities we explore the relative fits to historical yield spreads. 1
Valuing American options in a path simulation model
 Transactions of the Society of Actuaries
, 1993
"... The goal of this paper is to dispel the prevailing belief that Americanstyle options cannot be valued efficiently in a simulation model, and thus remove what has been considered a major impediment to the use of simulation models for valuing financial instruments. We present a general algorithm for ..."
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Cited by 98 (0 self)
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The goal of this paper is to dispel the prevailing belief that Americanstyle options cannot be valued efficiently in a simulation model, and thus remove what has been considered a major impediment to the use of simulation models for valuing financial instruments. We present a general algorithm for estimating the value of American options on an underlying instrument or index for which the arbitragefree probability distribution of paths through time can be simulated. The general algorithm is tested by an example for which the exact option premium can be determined. 1.
Nonparametric Specification Testing for ContinuousTime Models with Application to Spot Interest Rates
, 2002
"... ..."
Is the Short Rate Drift Actually Nonlinear?
, 1999
"... AitSahalia (1996) and Stanton (1997) use nonparametric estimators applied to short term interest rate data to conclude that the drift function contains important nonlinearities. We study the finitesample properties of their estimators by applying them to simulated sample paths of a squareroot dif ..."
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Cited by 81 (1 self)
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AitSahalia (1996) and Stanton (1997) use nonparametric estimators applied to short term interest rate data to conclude that the drift function contains important nonlinearities. We study the finitesample properties of their estimators by applying them to simulated sample paths of a squareroot diffusion. Although the drift function is linear, both estimators suggest nonlinearities of the type and magnitude reported in AitSahalia (1996) and Stanton (1997). Combined with the results of a weighted least squares estimator, this evidence implies that nonlinearity of the short rate drift is not a robust stylized fact.
A selective overview of nonparametric methods in financial econometrics
 Statist. Sci
, 2005
"... Abstract. This paper gives a brief overview of the nonparametric techniques that are useful for financial econometric problems. The problems include estimation and inference for instantaneous returns and volatility functions of timehomogeneous and timedependent diffusion processes, and estimation ..."
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Cited by 53 (8 self)
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Abstract. This paper gives a brief overview of the nonparametric techniques that are useful for financial econometric problems. The problems include estimation and inference for instantaneous returns and volatility functions of timehomogeneous and timedependent diffusion processes, and estimation of transition densities and state price densities. We first briefly describe the problems and then outline the main techniques and main results. Some useful probabilistic aspects of diffusion processes are also briefly summarized to facilitate our presentation and applications.
Continuoustime methods in finance: A review and an assessment
 Journal of Finance
, 2000
"... I survey and assess the development of continuoustime methods in finance during the last 30 years. The subperiod 1969 to 1980 saw a dizzying pace of development with seminal ideas in derivatives securities pricing, term structure theory, asset pricing, and optimal consumption and portfolio choices. ..."
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Cited by 52 (0 self)
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I survey and assess the development of continuoustime methods in finance during the last 30 years. The subperiod 1969 to 1980 saw a dizzying pace of development with seminal ideas in derivatives securities pricing, term structure theory, asset pricing, and optimal consumption and portfolio choices. During the period 1981 to 1999 the theory has been extended and modified to better explain empirical regularities in various subfields of finance. This latter subperiod has seen significant progress in econometric theory, computational and estimation methods to test and implement continuoustime models. Capital market frictions and bargaining issues are being increasingly incorporated in continuoustime theory. THE ROOTS OF MODERN CONTINUOUSTIME METHODS in finance can be traced back to the seminal contributions of Merton ~1969, 1971, 1973b! in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Merton ~1969! pioneered the use of continuoustime modeling in financial economics by formulating the intertemporal consumption and portfolio choice problem of an investor in a stochastic dynamic programming setting.
On The Stability Of LogNormal Interest Rate Models And The Pricing Of Eurodollar Futures
, 1995
"... . The lognormal distribution assumption for the term structure of interest is the most natural way to exclude negative spot and forward rates. However, imposing this assumption on the continuously compounded interest rate has a serious drawback: expected rollover returns are infinite even if the rol ..."
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Cited by 40 (2 self)
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. The lognormal distribution assumption for the term structure of interest is the most natural way to exclude negative spot and forward rates. However, imposing this assumption on the continuously compounded interest rate has a serious drawback: expected rollover returns are infinite even if the rollover period is arbitrarily short. As a consequence such models cannot price one of the most widely used hedging instrument on the Euromoney market, namely the Eurofuture contract. The purpose of this paper is to show that the problem with lognormal models result from modelling the wrong rate, namely the continuously compounded rate. If instead one models the effective annual rate the problem disappears, i.e. the expected rollover returns are finite. The paper studies the resulting dynamics of the continuously compounded rate which is neither normal nor lognormal. 1. Introduction Most models of the term structure of interest rate which start with modelling the short rate r(t) are of the for...