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Iterative modulo scheduling: An algorithm for software pipelining loops
 In Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Symposium on Microarchitecture
, 1994
"... Modulo scheduling is a framework within which a wide variety of algorithms and heuristics may be defined for software pipelining innermost loops. This paper presents a practical algorithm, iterative modulo scheduling, that is capable of dealing with realistic machine models. This paper also characte ..."
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Cited by 280 (3 self)
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Modulo scheduling is a framework within which a wide variety of algorithms and heuristics may be defined for software pipelining innermost loops. This paper presents a practical algorithm, iterative modulo scheduling, that is capable of dealing with realistic machine models. This paper also characterizes the algorithm in terms of the quality of the generated schedules as well the computational expense incurred.
InstructionLevel Parallel Processing: History, Overview and Perspective
, 1992
"... Instructionlevel Parallelism CILP) is a family of processor and compiler design techniques that speed up execution by causing individual machine operations to execute in parallel. Although ILP has appeared in the highest performance uniprocessors for the past 30 years, the 1980s saw it become a muc ..."
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Cited by 170 (0 self)
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Instructionlevel Parallelism CILP) is a family of processor and compiler design techniques that speed up execution by causing individual machine operations to execute in parallel. Although ILP has appeared in the highest performance uniprocessors for the past 30 years, the 1980s saw it become a much more significant force in computer design. Several systems were built, and sold commercially, which pushed ILP far beyond where it had been before, both in terms of the amount of ILP offered and in the central role ILP played in the design of the system. By the end of the decade, advanced microprocessor design at all major CPU manufacturers had incorporated ILP, and new techniques for ILP have become a popular topic at academic conferences. This article provides an overview and historical perspective of the field of ILP and its development over the past three decades.
LifetimeSensitive Modulo Scheduling
 In Proc. of the ACM SIGPLAN '93 Conf. on Programming Language Design and Implementation
, 1993
"... This paper shows how to software pipeline a loop for minimal register pressure without sacrificing the loop's minimum execution time. This novel bidirectional slackscheduling method has been implemented in a FORTRAN compiler and tested on many scientific benchmarks. The empirical resultswhen me ..."
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Cited by 131 (0 self)
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This paper shows how to software pipeline a loop for minimal register pressure without sacrificing the loop's minimum execution time. This novel bidirectional slackscheduling method has been implemented in a FORTRAN compiler and tested on many scientific benchmarks. The empirical resultswhen measured against an absolute lower bound on execution time, and against a novel scheduleindependent absolute lower bound on register pressureindicate nearoptimal performance. 1 Introduction Software pipelining increases a loop's throughput by overlapping the loop's iterations; that is, by initiating successive iterations before prior iterations complete. With sufficient overlap, a functional unit can be saturated, at which point the loop initiates iterations at the maximum possible rate. To find an overlapped schedule, a compiler must represent the complex resource constraints that can arise. Efficiently representing these constraints is especially difficult when adjacent iterations do n...
Iterative Modulo Scheduling
, 1995
"... Modulo scheduling is a framework within which algorithms for the software pipelining of innermost loops may be defined. The framework specifies a set of constraints that must be met in order to achieve a legal modulo schedule. A wide variety of algorithms and heuristics can be defined within this fr ..."
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Cited by 84 (6 self)
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Modulo scheduling is a framework within which algorithms for the software pipelining of innermost loops may be defined. The framework specifies a set of constraints that must be met in order to achieve a legal modulo schedule. A wide variety of algorithms and heuristics can be defined within this framework. Little work has been done to evaluate and compare alternative algorithms and heuristics for modulo scheduling from the viewpoints of schedule quality as well as computational complexity. This, along with a vague and unfounded perception that modulo scheduling is computationally expensive as well as difficult to implement, have inhibited its incorporation into product compilers. This report presents iterative modulo scheduling, a practical algorithm that is capable of dealing with realistic machine models. The report also characterizes the algorithm in terms of the quality of the generated schedules as well the computational expense incurred.
Minimizing Register Requirements under ResourceConstrained RateOptimal Software Pipelining
, 1995
"... The rapid advances in highperformance computer architecture and compilation techniques provide both challenges and opportunities to exploit the rich solution space of software pipelined loop schedules. In this paper, we develop a framework to construct a software pipelined loop schedule which runs ..."
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Cited by 75 (12 self)
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The rapid advances in highperformance computer architecture and compilation techniques provide both challenges and opportunities to exploit the rich solution space of software pipelined loop schedules. In this paper, we develop a framework to construct a software pipelined loop schedule which runs on the given architecture (with a fixed number of processor resources) at the maximum possible iteration rate (`a la rateoptimal) while minimizing the number of buffers  a close approximation to minimizing the number of registers. The main contributions of this paper are: ffl First, we demonstrate that such problem can be described by a simple mathematical formulation with precise optimization objectives under a periodic linear scheduling framework. The mathematical formulation provides a clear picture which permits one to visualize the overall solution space (for rateoptimal schedules) under different sets of constraints. ffl Secondly, we show that a precise mathematical formulation...
Modulo Scheduling with Integrated Register Spilling for Clustered VLIW Architectures
 In Proceedings of the 34th Annual International Symposium on Microarchitecture
"... Clustering is a technique to decentralize the design of future wide issue VLIW cores and enable them to meet the technology constraints in terms of cycle time, area and power dissipation. In a clustered design, registers and functional units are grouped in clusters so that new instructions are neede ..."
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Cited by 32 (5 self)
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Clustering is a technique to decentralize the design of future wide issue VLIW cores and enable them to meet the technology constraints in terms of cycle time, area and power dissipation. In a clustered design, registers and functional units are grouped in clusters so that new instructions are needed to move data between them. New aggressive instruction scheduling techniques are required to minimize the negative effect of resource clustering and delays in moving data around.
A Framework for ResourceConstrained RateOptimal Software Pipelining
 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
, 1996
"... The rapid advances in highperformance computer architecture and compilation techniques provide both challenges and opportunities to exploit the rich solution space of software pipelined loop schedules. In this paper, we develop a framework to construct a software pipelined loop schedule which runs ..."
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Cited by 24 (9 self)
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The rapid advances in highperformance computer architecture and compilation techniques provide both challenges and opportunities to exploit the rich solution space of software pipelined loop schedules. In this paper, we develop a framework to construct a software pipelined loop schedule which runs on the given architecture (with a fixed number of processor resources) at the maximum possible iteration rate (`a la rateoptimal) while minimizing the number of buffers  a close approximation to minimizing the number of registers. The main contributions of this paper are: ffl First, we demonstrate that such problem can be described by a simple mathematical formulation with precise optimization objectives under a periodic linear scheduling framework. The mathematical formulation provides a clear picture which permits one to visualize the overall solution space (for rateoptimal schedules) under different sets of constraints. ffl Secondly, we show that a precise mathematical formulation...
Improved Spill Code Generation for Software Pipelined Loops
, 1999
"... Software pipelining is a loop scheduling technique that extracts parallelism out of loops by overlapping the execution of several consecutive iterations. Due to the overlapping of iterations, schedules impose high register requirements during their execution. A schedule is valid if it requires at mo ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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Software pipelining is a loop scheduling technique that extracts parallelism out of loops by overlapping the execution of several consecutive iterations. Due to the overlapping of iterations, schedules impose high register requirements during their execution. A schedule is valid if it requires at most the number of registers available in the target architecture. If not, its register requirements have to be reduced either by decreasing the iteration overlapping or by spilling registers to memory. In this paper we describe a set of heuristics to increase the quality of registerconstrained modulo schedules. The heuristics decide between the two previous alternatives and define criteria for effectively selecting spilling candidates. The heuristics proposed for reducing the register pressure can be applied to any software pipelining technique. The proposals are evaluated using a register conscious software pipeliner on a workbench composed of a large set of loops from the Perfect Club benchmark and a set of processor configurations. Proposals in this paper are compared against a previous proposal already described in the literature. For one of these processor configurations and the set of loops that do not fit in the available registers (32), a speedup of 1.68 and a reduction of the memory traffic by a factor of 0.57 are achieved with an affordable increase in compilation time. For all the loops, this represents a speed up of 1.38 and a reduction of the memory traffic by a factor of 0.7.
Reducing The Impact Of Register Pressure On Software Pipelined Loops
, 1996
"... This work deals with the problems caused by the high register requirements of software pipelined loops. The main contributions of this work are: * Register requirements of software pipelined loops are evaluated. * Several heuristics to perform registerconstrained software pipelining are proposed * ..."
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Cited by 13 (8 self)
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This work deals with the problems caused by the high register requirements of software pipelined loops. The main contributions of this work are: * Register requirements of software pipelined loops are evaluated. * Several heuristics to perform registerconstrained software pipelining are proposed * The effects of register requirements on performance under register constraints are evaluated * HRMS is proposed to perform software pipelining with resource constraints and reduced register requirements * Two new register file organizations are proposed to allow for a large number of registerse with low area cost and fast access time.
Quantitative Evaluation Of Register Pressure On Software Pipelined Loops
, 1998
"... Software Pipelining is a loop scheduling technique that extracts loop parallelism by overlapping the execution of several consecutive iterations. One of the drawbacks of software pipelining is its high register requirements, which increase with the number of functional units and their degree of p ..."
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Cited by 12 (8 self)
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Software Pipelining is a loop scheduling technique that extracts loop parallelism by overlapping the execution of several consecutive iterations. One of the drawbacks of software pipelining is its high register requirements, which increase with the number of functional units and their degree of pipelining. This paper analyzes the register requirements of software pipelined loops. It also evaluates the effects on performance of the addition of spill code. Spill code is needed when the number of registers required by the software pipelined loop is larger than the number of registers of the target machine. This spill code increases memory traffic and can reduce performance. Finally, compilers can apply transformations in order to reduce the number of memory accesses and increase functional unit utilization. The paper also evaluates the negative effect on register requirements that some of these transformations might produce on loops.