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The concurrency workbench: A semantics based tool for the verification of concurrent systems
 In Proceedings of the Workshop on Automatic Verification Methods for Finite State Machines
, 1991
"... Abstract The Concurrency Workbench is an automated tool for analyzing networks of finitestate processes expressed in Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems. Its key feature is its breadth: a variety of different verification methods, including equivalence checking, preorder checking, and model ..."
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Cited by 102 (3 self)
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Abstract The Concurrency Workbench is an automated tool for analyzing networks of finitestate processes expressed in Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems. Its key feature is its breadth: a variety of different verification methods, including equivalence checking, preorder checking, and model checking, are supported for several different process semantics. One experience from our work is that a large number of interesting verification methods can be formulated as combinations of a small number of primitive algorithms. The Workbench has been applied to the verification of communications protocols and mutual exclusion algorithms and has proven a valuable aid in teaching and research. 1 Introduction This paper describes the Concurrency Workbench [11, 12, 13], a tool that supports the automatic verification of finitestate processes. Such tools are practically motivated: the development of complex distributed computer systems requires sophisticated verification techniques to guarantee correctness, and the increase in detail rapidly becomes unmanageable without computer assistance. Finitestate systems, such as communications protocols and hardware, are particularly suitable for automated analysis because their finitary nature ensures the existence of decision procedures for a wide range of system properties.
From Timed Automata to Logic  and Back
 MFCS’95, LNCS 969
, 1995
"... One of the most successful techniques for automatic verification is that of model checking. For finite automata there exist since long extremely efficient modelchecking algorithms, and in the last few years these algorithms have been made applicable to the verification of realtime automata usi ..."
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Cited by 52 (7 self)
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One of the most successful techniques for automatic verification is that of model checking. For finite automata there exist since long extremely efficient modelchecking algorithms, and in the last few years these algorithms have been made applicable to the verification of realtime automata using the regiontechniques of Alur and Dill. In this
A Constraint Oriented Proof Methodology Based on Modal Transition Systems
 In BRICS Notes
, 1995
"... In this paper, we present a constraintoriented statebased proof methodology for concurrent software systems which exploits compositionality and abstraction for the reduction of the verification problem under investigation. Formal basis for this methodology are Modal Transition Systems allowing loo ..."
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Cited by 44 (7 self)
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In this paper, we present a constraintoriented statebased proof methodology for concurrent software systems which exploits compositionality and abstraction for the reduction of the verification problem under investigation. Formal basis for this methodology are Modal Transition Systems allowing loose statebased specifications, which can be refined by successively adding constraints. Key concepts of our method are projective views, separation of proof obligations, Skolemization and abstraction. The method is even applicable to real time systems. 1 Introduction The use of formal methods and in particular formal verification of concurrent systems, interactive or fully automatic, is still limited to very specific problem classes. For statebased methods this is mainly due to the state explosion problem: the state graph of a concurrent systems grows exponentially with the number of its parallel components, leading to an unmanageable size for most practically relevant systems. Consequentl...
Generating Data Flow Analysis Algorithms from Modal Specifications
 SCIENCE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
, 1993
"... The paper develops a framework that is based on the idea that modal logic provides an appropriate framework for the specification of data flow analysis (DFA) algorithms as soon as programs are represented as models of the logic. This can be exploited to construct a DFAgenerator that generates effic ..."
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Cited by 26 (7 self)
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The paper develops a framework that is based on the idea that modal logic provides an appropriate framework for the specification of data flow analysis (DFA) algorithms as soon as programs are represented as models of the logic. This can be exploited to construct a DFAgenerator that generates efficient implementations of DFAalgorithms from modal specifications by partially evaluating a specific model checker with respect to the specifying modal formula. Moreover, the use of a modal logic as specification language for DFAalgorithms supports the compositional development of specifications and structured proofs of properties of DFAalgorithms.  The framework is illustrated by means of a real life example: the problem of determining optimal computation points within flow graphs.
Descriptive and relative completeness for logics for higherorder functions
 In ICALP’06, volume 4052 of LNCS
, 2006
"... Abstract. This paper establishes a strong completeness property of compositional program logics for pure and imperative higherorder functions introduced in [2, 15–18]. This property, called descriptive completeness, says that for each program there is an assertion fully describing the former’s beha ..."
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Cited by 17 (9 self)
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Abstract. This paper establishes a strong completeness property of compositional program logics for pure and imperative higherorder functions introduced in [2, 15–18]. This property, called descriptive completeness, says that for each program there is an assertion fully describing the former’s behaviour up to the standard observational semantics. This formula is inductively calculable from the program text alone. As a consequence we obtain the first relative completeness result for compositional logics of pure and imperative callbyvalue higherorder functions in the full type hierarchy. 1
The FixpointAnalysis Machine
 Proc. CONCUR'95, volume 962 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1995
"... . We present a fixpointanalysis machine, for the efficient computation of homogeneous, hierarchical, and alternating fixpoints over regular, contextfree/pushdown and macro models. Applications of such fixpoint computations include intra and interprocedural data flow analysis, model checking for ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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. We present a fixpointanalysis machine, for the efficient computation of homogeneous, hierarchical, and alternating fixpoints over regular, contextfree/pushdown and macro models. Applications of such fixpoint computations include intra and interprocedural data flow analysis, model checking for various temporal logics, and the verification of behavioural relations between distributed systems. The fixpointanalysis machine identifies an adequate (parameterized) level for a uniform treatment of all those problems, which, despite its uniformity, outperforms the `standard iteration based' special purpose tools usually by factors around 10, even if the additional compilation time is taken into account. 1 Introduction and Motivation A great number of analysis and verification problems such as abstract interpretation, data flow analysis, model checking, determination of behavioural relations between distributed systems, hardware verification and synthesis, etc., boil down to the computa...
A semanticsbased verification tool for finitestate systems
 IN PROC. OF PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION, TESTING, AND VERIFICATION, IX
, 1990
"... The Concurrency Workbench is an automated tool that caters for the analysis of concurrent finitestate processes expressed in Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems. Its key feature is its scope: a variety of different verification methods, including equivalence checking, preorder checking, and ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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The Concurrency Workbench is an automated tool that caters for the analysis of concurrent finitestate processes expressed in Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems. Its key feature is its scope: a variety of different verification methods, including equivalence checking, preorder checking, and model checking, are supported for several different process semantics. One experience from our work is that a large number of interesting verification methods can be formulated as combinations of a small number of primitive algorithms. The Workbench has been applied to examples involving the verification of communications protocols and mutual exclusion algorithms and has proven a valuable aid in teaching and research. We will present the architecture of the Workbench and illustrate the verification methods through some simple examples.
On the Parallel Complexity of Model Checking in the Modal MuCalculus
 In Proceedings, Ninth Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 1994
"... The modal mucalculus is an expressive logic that can be used to specify safety and liveness properties of concurrent systems represented as labeled transition systems (LTSs). We show that Model Checking in the Modal MuCalculus (MCMMC)  the problem of checking whether an LTS is a model of a form ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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The modal mucalculus is an expressive logic that can be used to specify safety and liveness properties of concurrent systems represented as labeled transition systems (LTSs). We show that Model Checking in the Modal MuCalculus (MCMMC)  the problem of checking whether an LTS is a model of a formula of the propositional modal mucalculus  is Phard even for a very restrictive version of the problem involving the alternationfree fragment. In particular, MCMMC is Phard even if the formula is fixed and alternationfree, and the LTS is deterministic, acyclic, and has fanin and fanout bounded by 2. The reduction used is from a restricted version of the circuit value problem known as Synchronous Alternating Monotone Fanout 2 Circuit Value Problem. Our Phardness result is tight in the sense that placing any further nontrivial restrictions on either the formula or the LTS results in membership in NC for MCMMC. Specifically, we exhibit NCalgorithms for two potentially useful versio...
Heterogeneous Analysis and Verification for Distributed Systems
, 1995
"... In this paper we present an environment for the development of special purpose heterogeneous analysis and verification tools, which is unique in 1) constituting a framework for the development of application specific heterogeneous tools and 2) providing facilities for the automation of the synthesis ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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In this paper we present an environment for the development of special purpose heterogeneous analysis and verification tools, which is unique in 1) constituting a framework for the development of application specific heterogeneous tools and 2) providing facilities for the automation of the synthesis process. Based on a specification language that uniformly combines taxonomic component specifications, interface conditions, and ordering constraints, our method adds a global view to conventional single component retrieval. Following a user session, we illustrate the interactive synthesis process, which supports the inclusion of a satisfactory new software component into the repository by proposing an appropriately precomputed default taxonomic classification. This guarantees convenient retrieval for later reuse.
On Modal µCalculus and NonWellFounded Set Theory
"... A finitary characterization for nonwellfounded sets with finite transitive closure is established in terms of modal µcalculus. This result generalizes the standard approach in the literature where a finitary characterization is only provided for wellfounded sets with finite transitive closure ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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A finitary characterization for nonwellfounded sets with finite transitive closure is established in terms of modal µcalculus. This result generalizes the standard approach in the literature where a finitary characterization is only provided for wellfounded sets with finite transitive closure. The proof relies on the concept of automaton, leading then to new interlinks between automata theory and nonwellfounded sets.