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53
Macro Tree Transducers, Attribute Grammars, and MSO Definable Tree Translations
 Inform. and Comput
, 1998
"... A characterization is given of the class of tree translations definable in monadic second order logic (MSO), in terms of macro tree transducers. The first main result is that the MSO definable tree translations are exactly those tree translations realized by macro tree transducers (MTTs) with reg ..."
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Cited by 46 (20 self)
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A characterization is given of the class of tree translations definable in monadic second order logic (MSO), in terms of macro tree transducers. The first main result is that the MSO definable tree translations are exactly those tree translations realized by macro tree transducers (MTTs) with regular lookahead that are single use restricted. For this the single use restriction known from attribute grammars is generalized to MTTs. Since MTTs are closed under regular lookahead, this implies that every MSO definable tree translation can be realized by an MTT. The second main result is that the class of MSO definable tree translations can also be obtained by restricting MTTs with regular lookahead to be finite copying, i.e., to require that each input subtree is processed only a bounded number of times. The single use restriction is a rather strong, static restriction on the rules of an MTT, whereas the finite copying restriction is a more liberal, dynamic restriction on the ...
Bottomup and Topdown Tree Series Transformations
 J. Autom. Lang. Combin
, 2000
"... We generalize bottomup tree transducers and topdown tree transducers to the concept of bottomup tree series transducer and topdown tree series transducer, respectively, by allowing formal tree series as output rather than trees, where a formal tree series is a mapping from output trees to some s ..."
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Cited by 37 (6 self)
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We generalize bottomup tree transducers and topdown tree transducers to the concept of bottomup tree series transducer and topdown tree series transducer, respectively, by allowing formal tree series as output rather than trees, where a formal tree series is a mapping from output trees to some semiring. We associate two semantics with a tree series transducer: a mapping which transforms trees into tree series (for short: tree to tree series transformation or tts transformation), and a mapping which transforms tree series into tree series (for short: tree series transformation or tsts transformation). We show that the standard case of tree transducers is reobtained by choosing the boolean semiring under the tts semantics. Also, for each of the two types of tree series transducers and for both types of semantics, we prove a characterization which generalizes in a straightforward way the corresponding characterization result for the underlying tree transducer class. Mo...
A comparison of pebble tree transducers with macro tree transducers
 Acta Informatica
, 2003
"... Abstract. The npebble tree transducer was recently proposed as a model for XML query languages. The four main results on deterministic transducers are: First, (1) the translation τ of an npebble tree transducer can be realized by a composition of n + 1 0pebble tree transducers. Next, the pebble t ..."
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Cited by 37 (10 self)
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Abstract. The npebble tree transducer was recently proposed as a model for XML query languages. The four main results on deterministic transducers are: First, (1) the translation τ of an npebble tree transducer can be realized by a composition of n + 1 0pebble tree transducers. Next, the pebble tree transducer is compared with the macro tree transducer, a wellknown model for syntaxdirected semantics, with decidable type checking. The 0pebble tree transducer can be simulated by the macro tree transducer, which, by the first result, implies that (2) τ can be realized by an (n+1)fold composition of macro tree transducers. Conversely, every macro tree transducer can be simulated by a composition of 0pebble tree transducers. Together these simulations prove that (3) the composition closure of npebble tree transducers equals that of macro tree transducers (and that of 0pebble tree transducers). Similar results hold in the nondeterministic case. Finally, (4) the output languages of deterministic npebble tree transducers form a hierarchy with respect to the number n of pebbles. 1
A Comparison of Tree Transductions defined by Monadic Second Order Logic and by Attribute Grammars
, 1998
"... . Two wellknown formalisms for the specication and computation of tree transductions are compared: the mso graph transducer and the attributed tree transducer with lookahead, respectively. The mso graph transducer, restricted to trees, uses monadic second order logic to dene the output tree in ..."
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Cited by 25 (8 self)
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. Two wellknown formalisms for the specication and computation of tree transductions are compared: the mso graph transducer and the attributed tree transducer with lookahead, respectively. The mso graph transducer, restricted to trees, uses monadic second order logic to dene the output tree in terms of the input tree. The attributed tree transducer is an attribute grammar in which all attributes are trees; it is preceded by a lookahead phase in which all attributes have nitely many values. The main result is that these formalisms are equivalent, i.e., that the attributed tree transducer with lookahead is an appropriate implementation model for the tree transductions that are speciable in mso logic. This result holds for mso graph transducers that produce trees with shared subtrees. If no sharing is allowed, the attributed tree transducer satises the single use restriction. 1 Introduction Formulas of monadic second order (mso) logic can be used to express properti...
Composition of functions with accumulating parameters
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 2004
"... Many functional programs with accumulating parameters are contained in the class of macro tree transducers. We present a program transformation technique that can be used to solve the efficiency problems due to creation and consumption of intermediate data structures in compositions of such function ..."
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Cited by 20 (9 self)
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Many functional programs with accumulating parameters are contained in the class of macro tree transducers. We present a program transformation technique that can be used to solve the efficiency problems due to creation and consumption of intermediate data structures in compositions of such functions, where classical deforestation techniques fail. In order to do so, given two macro tree transducers under appropriate restrictions, we construct a single macro tree transducer that implements the composition of the two original ones. The imposed restrictions are more liberal than those in the literature on macro tree transducer composition, thus generalising previous results.
Comparison of Deforestation Techniques for Functional Programs and for Tree Transducers
 In FLOPS'99
, 1999
"... We compare transformations for the elimination of intermediate results in firstorder functional programs. We choose the well known deforestation technique of Wadler and composition techniques from the theory of tree transducers, of which the implementation of functional programs yet does not ta ..."
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Cited by 19 (5 self)
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We compare transformations for the elimination of intermediate results in firstorder functional programs. We choose the well known deforestation technique of Wadler and composition techniques from the theory of tree transducers, of which the implementation of functional programs yet does not take advantage. We identify syntactic classes of function definitions for which both techniques deliver equally efficient results and for which one technique is more powerful than the other.
Macro Tree Translations of Linear Size Increase are MSO Definable
 SIAM J. Comput
, 2001
"... Abstract. The first main result is that if a macro tree translation is of linear size increase, i.e., if the size of every output tree is linearly bounded by the size of the corresponding input tree, then the translation is MSO definable (i.e., definable in monadic secondorder logic). This gives a ..."
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Cited by 16 (6 self)
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Abstract. The first main result is that if a macro tree translation is of linear size increase, i.e., if the size of every output tree is linearly bounded by the size of the corresponding input tree, then the translation is MSO definable (i.e., definable in monadic secondorder logic). This gives a new characterization of the MSO definable tree translations in terms of macro tree transducers: they are exactly the macro tree translations of linear size increase. The second main result is that given a macro tree transducer, it can be decided whether or not its translation is MSO definable, and if it is then an equivalent MSO transducer can be constructed. Similar results hold for attribute grammars, which define a subclass of the macro tree translations.
Relating Accumulative and NonAccumulative Functional Programs
 In Rewriting Techniques and Applications, Proceedings, volume 2051 of LNCS
, 2001
"... We study the problem to transform functional programs, which intensively use append functions (like inefficient list reversal), into programs, which use accumulating parameters instead (like efficient list reversal). We give an (automatic) transformation algorithm for our problem and identify a clas ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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We study the problem to transform functional programs, which intensively use append functions (like inefficient list reversal), into programs, which use accumulating parameters instead (like efficient list reversal). We give an (automatic) transformation algorithm for our problem and identify a class of functional programs, namely restricted 2modular tree transducers, to which it can be applied. Moreover, since we get macro tree transducers as transformation result and since we also give the inverse transformation algorithm, we have a new characterization for the class of functions induced by macro tree transducers.
The Complexity of Compositions of Deterministic Tree Transducers
 Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2002), volume 2556 of LNCS
, 2002
"... Macro tree transducers can simulate most models of tree transducers (e.g., topdown and bottomup tree transducers, attribute grammars, and pebble tree transducers which, in turn, can simulate all known models of XML transformers). The string languages generated by compositions of macro tree transdu ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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Macro tree transducers can simulate most models of tree transducers (e.g., topdown and bottomup tree transducers, attribute grammars, and pebble tree transducers which, in turn, can simulate all known models of XML transformers). The string languages generated by compositions of macro tree transducers (obtained by reading the leaves of the output trees) form a large class which contains, e.g., the IO hierarchy and the EDT0L control hierarchy. Consider an arbitrary composition of (deterministic) macro tree transducers. How dicffiult is it, for a given input tree s, to compute the translation t = (s)? It is shown that this problem can be solved (on a RAM) in time linear in the sum of the sizes of s and t. Moreover, the problem to determine, for a given t of size n, whether or not there is an input tree s such that t = (s) is in DSPACE(n); this means that output languages of compositions of macro tree transducers are deterministic contextsensitive. The involved technique of compressing intermediate results of the composition, also gives a new proof of the fact that the finiteness problem for 's range is decidable.
Output String Languages of Compositions of Deterministic Macro Tree Transducers
 Leiden University
, 2001
"... The composition of total deterministic macro tree transducers gives rise to a proper hierarchy with respect to their output string languages (these are the languages obtained by taking the yields of the output trees). There is a language not in this hierarchy which can be generated by a (quite restr ..."
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Cited by 7 (5 self)
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The composition of total deterministic macro tree transducers gives rise to a proper hierarchy with respect to their output string languages (these are the languages obtained by taking the yields of the output trees). There is a language not in this hierarchy which can be generated by a (quite restricted) nondeterministic string transducer, namely, a twoway generalized sequential machine. Similar results hold for attributed tree transducers, for controlled EDT0L systems, and for YIELD mappings (which proves properness of the IOhierarchy). Witnesses for the properness of the macro tree transducer hierarchy can already be found in the latter three hierarchies.