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50
Macro Tree Transducers, Attribute Grammars, and MSO Definable Tree Translations
 Inform. and Comput
, 1998
"... A characterization is given of the class of tree translations definable in monadic second order logic (MSO), in terms of macro tree transducers. The first main result is that the MSO definable tree translations are exactly those tree translations realized by macro tree transducers (MTTs) with reg ..."
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Cited by 46 (20 self)
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A characterization is given of the class of tree translations definable in monadic second order logic (MSO), in terms of macro tree transducers. The first main result is that the MSO definable tree translations are exactly those tree translations realized by macro tree transducers (MTTs) with regular lookahead that are single use restricted. For this the single use restriction known from attribute grammars is generalized to MTTs. Since MTTs are closed under regular lookahead, this implies that every MSO definable tree translation can be realized by an MTT. The second main result is that the class of MSO definable tree translations can also be obtained by restricting MTTs with regular lookahead to be finite copying, i.e., to require that each input subtree is processed only a bounded number of times. The single use restriction is a rather strong, static restriction on the rules of an MTT, whereas the finite copying restriction is a more liberal, dynamic restriction on the ...
Compiling Language Definitions: The ASF+SDF Compiler
, 1999
"... The ASF+SDF MetaEnvironment is an interactive language development environment... ..."
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Cited by 40 (7 self)
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The ASF+SDF MetaEnvironment is an interactive language development environment...
A comparison of pebble tree transducers with macro tree transducers
 Acta Informatica
, 2003
"... Abstract. The npebble tree transducer was recently proposed as a model for XML query languages. The four main results on deterministic transducers are: First, (1) the translation τ of an npebble tree transducer can be realized by a composition of n + 1 0pebble tree transducers. Next, the pebble t ..."
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Cited by 37 (10 self)
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Abstract. The npebble tree transducer was recently proposed as a model for XML query languages. The four main results on deterministic transducers are: First, (1) the translation τ of an npebble tree transducer can be realized by a composition of n + 1 0pebble tree transducers. Next, the pebble tree transducer is compared with the macro tree transducer, a wellknown model for syntaxdirected semantics, with decidable type checking. The 0pebble tree transducer can be simulated by the macro tree transducer, which, by the first result, implies that (2) τ can be realized by an (n+1)fold composition of macro tree transducers. Conversely, every macro tree transducer can be simulated by a composition of 0pebble tree transducers. Together these simulations prove that (3) the composition closure of npebble tree transducers equals that of macro tree transducers (and that of 0pebble tree transducers). Similar results hold in the nondeterministic case. Finally, (4) the output languages of deterministic npebble tree transducers form a hierarchy with respect to the number n of pebbles. 1
Benefits of Tree Transducers for Optimizing Functional Programs
 In FST & TCS'98, Chennai, India, Proceedings, volume 1530 of LNCS
, 1998
"... We present a technique to prevent the construction of intermediate data structures in functional programs, which is based on results from the theory of tree transducers. We first decompose function definitions, which correspond to macro tree transducers, into smaller pieces. Under certain restrictio ..."
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Cited by 31 (6 self)
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We present a technique to prevent the construction of intermediate data structures in functional programs, which is based on results from the theory of tree transducers. We first decompose function definitions, which correspond to macro tree transducers, into smaller pieces. Under certain restrictions...
THE POWER OF EXTENDED TOPDOWN TREE TRANSDUCERS
"... Extended topdown tree transducers (transducteurs generalises descendants [Arnold, Dauchet: Bitransductions de forets. ICALP'76. Edinburgh University Press. 1976]) received renewed interest in the field of Natural Language Processing. Here those transducers are extensively and systematically studie ..."
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Cited by 30 (22 self)
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Extended topdown tree transducers (transducteurs generalises descendants [Arnold, Dauchet: Bitransductions de forets. ICALP'76. Edinburgh University Press. 1976]) received renewed interest in the field of Natural Language Processing. Here those transducers are extensively and systematically studied. Their main properties are identified and their relation to classical topdown tree transducers is exactly characterized. The obtained properties completely explain the Hasse diagram of the induced classes of tree transformations. In addition, it is shown that most interesting classes of transformations computed by extended topdown tree transducers are not closed under composition.
EQUIVALENCES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF REGULAR SYSTEMS  APPLICATIONS TO RECURSIVE PROGRAM SCHEMES AND GRAMMARS
, 1986
"... This work presents a unified theory of recursive program schemes, contextfree grammars, grammars on arbitrary algebraic structures and, in fact, recursive definitions of all kind by means of regular systems. The equivalences of regular systems associated with either all their solutions or their le ..."
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Cited by 27 (5 self)
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This work presents a unified theory of recursive program schemes, contextfree grammars, grammars on arbitrary algebraic structures and, in fact, recursive definitions of all kind by means of regular systems. The equivalences of regular systems associated with either all their solutions or their least solutions (in all domains of appropriate type satisfying a set of algebraic laws expressed by equations) are systematically investigated and characterized (in some cases) in terms of system transformations by folding, unfolding and rewriting according to the equational algebraic laws. Grammars are better characterized in terms of polynomial systems which are regular systems involving the operation of set union, and the same questions are raised for them. We also examine conditions insuring the uniqueness of the solution of a regular or of a polynomial system. This theory applies to grammars of many kinds which generate trees, graphs, etc. We formulate some classical transformations of contextfree grammars in terms of correct transformations which only use folding, unfolding and algebraic laws and we immediately obtain their correctness.
A Comparison of Tree Transductions defined by Monadic Second Order Logic and by Attribute Grammars
, 1998
"... . Two wellknown formalisms for the specication and computation of tree transductions are compared: the mso graph transducer and the attributed tree transducer with lookahead, respectively. The mso graph transducer, restricted to trees, uses monadic second order logic to dene the output tree in ..."
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Cited by 25 (8 self)
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. Two wellknown formalisms for the specication and computation of tree transductions are compared: the mso graph transducer and the attributed tree transducer with lookahead, respectively. The mso graph transducer, restricted to trees, uses monadic second order logic to dene the output tree in terms of the input tree. The attributed tree transducer is an attribute grammar in which all attributes are trees; it is preceded by a lookahead phase in which all attributes have nitely many values. The main result is that these formalisms are equivalent, i.e., that the attributed tree transducer with lookahead is an appropriate implementation model for the tree transductions that are speciable in mso logic. This result holds for mso graph transducers that produce trees with shared subtrees. If no sharing is allowed, the attributed tree transducer satises the single use restriction. 1 Introduction Formulas of monadic second order (mso) logic can be used to express properti...
Composition of functions with accumulating parameters
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 2004
"... Many functional programs with accumulating parameters are contained in the class of macro tree transducers. We present a program transformation technique that can be used to solve the efficiency problems due to creation and consumption of intermediate data structures in compositions of such function ..."
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Cited by 20 (9 self)
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Many functional programs with accumulating parameters are contained in the class of macro tree transducers. We present a program transformation technique that can be used to solve the efficiency problems due to creation and consumption of intermediate data structures in compositions of such functions, where classical deforestation techniques fail. In order to do so, given two macro tree transducers under appropriate restrictions, we construct a single macro tree transducer that implements the composition of the two original ones. The imposed restrictions are more liberal than those in the literature on macro tree transducer composition, thus generalising previous results.
Comparison of Deforestation Techniques for Functional Programs and for Tree Transducers
 In FLOPS'99
, 1999
"... We compare transformations for the elimination of intermediate results in firstorder functional programs. We choose the well known deforestation technique of Wadler and composition techniques from the theory of tree transducers, of which the implementation of functional programs yet does not ta ..."
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Cited by 18 (5 self)
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We compare transformations for the elimination of intermediate results in firstorder functional programs. We choose the well known deforestation technique of Wadler and composition techniques from the theory of tree transducers, of which the implementation of functional programs yet does not take advantage. We identify syntactic classes of function definitions for which both techniques deliver equally efficient results and for which one technique is more powerful than the other.
Decidability of the Finiteness of Ranges of Tree Transductions
 Inform. and Comput
, 1996
"... . The finiteness of ranges of tree transductions is shown to be decidable for TBY + , the composition closure of macro tree transductions. Furthermore, TBY + definable sets and TBY + computable relations are considered, which are obtained by viewing a tree as an expression that denotes an elem ..."
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Cited by 17 (7 self)
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. The finiteness of ranges of tree transductions is shown to be decidable for TBY + , the composition closure of macro tree transductions. Furthermore, TBY + definable sets and TBY + computable relations are considered, which are obtained by viewing a tree as an expression that denotes an element of a given algebra. A sufficient condition on the considered algebra is formulated under which the finiteness problem is decidable for TBY + definable sets and for the ranges of TBY + computable relations. The obtained result applies in particular to the class of string languages that can be defined by TBY + transductions via the yield mapping. This is a large class which is proved to form a substitutionclosed full AFL. 1 Introduction The finiteness problem is one of the classical decidability problems in formal language theory. For a given language of interest, one usually does not wish to know whether that language is finite (because it usually is not), but rather whether the l...