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Automatic Construction of Decision Trees from Data: A MultiDisciplinary Survey
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1997
"... Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial ne ..."
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Cited by 146 (1 self)
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Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial neural networks. Researchers in these disciplines, sometimes working on quite different problems, identified similar issues and heuristics for decision tree construction. This paper surveys existing work on decision tree construction, attempting to identify the important issues involved, directions the work has taken and the current state of the art. Keywords: classification, treestructured classifiers, data compaction 1. Introduction Advances in data collection methods, storage and processing technology are providing a unique challenge and opportunity for automated data exploration techniques. Enormous amounts of data are being collected daily from major scientific projects e.g., Human Genome...
Multicategory Classification by Support Vector Machines
 Computational Optimizations and Applications
, 1999
"... We examine the problem of how to discriminate between objects of three or more classes. Specifically, we investigate how twoclass discrimination methods can be extended to the multiclass case. We show how the linear programming (LP) approaches based on the work of Mangasarian and quadratic programm ..."
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Cited by 56 (0 self)
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We examine the problem of how to discriminate between objects of three or more classes. Specifically, we investigate how twoclass discrimination methods can be extended to the multiclass case. We show how the linear programming (LP) approaches based on the work of Mangasarian and quadratic programming (QP) approaches based on Vapnik's Support Vector Machines (SVM) can be combined to yield two new approaches to the multiclass problem. In LP multiclass discrimination, a single linear program is used to construct a piecewise linear classification function. In our proposed multiclass SVM method, a single quadratic program is used to construct a piecewise nonlinear classification function. Each piece of this function can take the form of a polynomial, radial basis function, or even a neural network. For the k > 2 class problems, the SVM method as originally proposed required the construction of a twoclass SVM to separate each class from the remaining classes. Similarily, k twoclass linear programs can be used for the multiclass problem. We performed an empirical study of the original LP method, the proposed k LP method, the proposed single QP method and the original k QP methods. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. 1 1
Mathematical Programming for Data Mining: Formulations and Challenges
 INFORMS Journal on Computing
, 1998
"... This paper is intended to serve as an overview of a rapidly emerging research and applications area. In addition to providing a general overview, motivating the importance of data mining problems within the area of knowledge discovery in databases, our aim is to list some of the pressing research ch ..."
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Cited by 47 (0 self)
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This paper is intended to serve as an overview of a rapidly emerging research and applications area. In addition to providing a general overview, motivating the importance of data mining problems within the area of knowledge discovery in databases, our aim is to list some of the pressing research challenges, and outline opportunities for contributions by the optimization research communities. Towards these goals, we include formulations of the basic categories of data mining methods as optimization problems. We also provide examples of successful mathematical programming approaches to some data mining problems. keywords: data analysis, data mining, mathematical programming methods, challenges for massive data sets, classification, clustering, prediction, optimization. To appear: INFORMS: Journal of Compting, special issue on Data Mining, A. Basu and B. Golden (guest editors). Also appears as Mathematical Programming Technical Report 9801, Computer Sciences Department, University of Wi...
Mathematical Programming in Neural Networks
 ORSA Journal on Computing
, 1993
"... This paper highlights the role of mathematical programming, particularly linear programming, in training neural networks. A neural network description is given in terms of separating planes in the input space that suggests the use of linear programming for determining these planes. A more standard d ..."
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Cited by 40 (13 self)
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This paper highlights the role of mathematical programming, particularly linear programming, in training neural networks. A neural network description is given in terms of separating planes in the input space that suggests the use of linear programming for determining these planes. A more standard description in terms of a mean square error in the output space is also given, which leads to the use of unconstrained minimization techniques for training a neural network. The linear programming approach is demonstrated by a brief description of a system for breast cancer diagnosis that has been in use for the last four years at a major medical facility. 1 What is a Neural Network? A neural network is a representation of a map between an input space and an output space. A principal aim of such a map is to discriminate between the elements of a finite number of disjoint sets in the input space. Typically one wishes to discriminate between the elements of two disjoint point sets in the ndim...
Nuclear Feature Extraction For Breast Tumor Diagnosis
, 1993
"... Interactive image processing techniques, along with a linearprogrammingbased inductive classifier, have been used to create a highly accurate system for diagnosis of breast tumors. A small fraction of a fine needle aspirate slide is selected and digitized. With an interactive interface, the user i ..."
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Cited by 37 (7 self)
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Interactive image processing techniques, along with a linearprogrammingbased inductive classifier, have been used to create a highly accurate system for diagnosis of breast tumors. A small fraction of a fine needle aspirate slide is selected and digitized. With an interactive interface, the user initializes active contour models, known as snakes, near the boundaries of a set of cell nuclei. The customized snakes are deformed to the exact shape of the nuclei. This allows for precise, automated analysis of nuclear size, shape and texture. Ten such features are computed for each nucleus, and the mean value, largest (or "worst") value and standard error of each feature are found over the range of isolated cells. After 569 images were analyzed in this fashion, different combinations of features were tested to find those which best separate benign from malignant samples. Tenfold crossvalidation accuracy of 97% was achieved using a single separating plane on three of the thirty features: ...
Bilinear Separation of Two Sets in nSpace
 COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS
, 1993
"... The NPcomplete problem of determining whether two disjoint point sets in the ndimensional real space R n can be separated by two planes is cast as a bilinear program, that is minimizing the scalar product of two linear functions on a polyhedral set. The bilinear program, which has a vertex solut ..."
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Cited by 35 (17 self)
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The NPcomplete problem of determining whether two disjoint point sets in the ndimensional real space R n can be separated by two planes is cast as a bilinear program, that is minimizing the scalar product of two linear functions on a polyhedral set. The bilinear program, which has a vertex solution, is processed by an iterative linear programming algorithm that terminates in a finite number of steps at a point satisfying a necessary optimality condition or at a global minimum. Encouraging computational experience on a number of test problems is reported.
Multicategory Discrimination via Linear Programming
 OPTIMIZATION METHODS AND SOFTWARE
, 1992
"... A single linear program is proposed for discriminating between the elements of k disjoint point sets in the ndimensional real space R n : When the conical hulls of the k sets are (k \Gamma 1)point disjoint in R n+1 , a kpiece piecewiselinear surface generated by the linear program completely ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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A single linear program is proposed for discriminating between the elements of k disjoint point sets in the ndimensional real space R n : When the conical hulls of the k sets are (k \Gamma 1)point disjoint in R n+1 , a kpiece piecewiselinear surface generated by the linear program completely separates the k sets. This improves on a previous linear programming approach which required that each set be linearly separable from the remaining k \Gamma 1 sets. When the conical hulls of the k sets are not (k \Gamma 1)point disjoint, the proposed linear program generates an errorminimizing piecewiselinear separator for the k sets. For this case it is shown that the null solution is never a unique solver of the linear program and occurs only under the rather rare condition when the mean of each point set equals the mean of the means of the other k \Gamma 1 sets. This makes the proposed linear computational programming formulation useful for approximately discriminating between k sets...
MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES TO DIAGNOSE BREAST CANCER FROM IMAGEPROCESSED NUCLEAR FEATURES OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES
"... An interactive computer system evaluates and diagnoses based on cytologic features derived directly from a digital scan of fineneedle aspirates (FNA) slides. A consecutive series of 569 patients provided the data to develop the system and an additional 54 consecutive, new patients provided samples ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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An interactive computer system evaluates and diagnoses based on cytologic features derived directly from a digital scan of fineneedle aspirates (FNA) slides. A consecutive series of 569 patients provided the data to develop the system and an additional 54 consecutive, new patients provided samples to test the system. The projected prospective accuracy of the system estimated by tenfold cross validation was 97%. The actual accuracy on 54 new samples (36 benign, 1 atypia, and 17 malignant) was 100%. Digital image
Geometry in Learning
 In Geometry at Work
, 1997
"... One of the fundamental problems in learning is identifying members of two different classes. For example, to diagnose cancer, one must learn to discriminate between benign and malignant tumors. Through examination of tumors with previously determined diagnosis, one learns some function for distingui ..."
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Cited by 19 (6 self)
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One of the fundamental problems in learning is identifying members of two different classes. For example, to diagnose cancer, one must learn to discriminate between benign and malignant tumors. Through examination of tumors with previously determined diagnosis, one learns some function for distinguishing the benign and malignant tumors. Then the acquired knowledge is used to diagnose new tumors. The perceptron is a simple biologically inspired model for this twoclass learning problem. The perceptron is trained or constructed using examples from the two classes. Then the perceptron is used to classify new examples. We describe geometrically what a perceptron is capable of learning. Using duality, we develop a framework for investigating different methods of training a perceptron. Depending on how we define the "best" perceptron, different minimization problems are developed for training the perceptron. The effectiveness of these methods is evaluated empirically on four practical applic...